WTTP 2721
Advanced Coagulation and Particle Removal

3.0 Credits


This course is a continuation of Water Treatment 2 where coagulation in general terms was introduced. This course takes an in-depth look at coagulation and particle removal. Topics discussed include the advanced principles of coagulation, emerging technologies, jar testing, and clarification methods and equipment. The course aims to provide operators with information that will improve their ability to assess conditions in the water treatment plant and make decisions to ensure the smooth operation of their treatment process.

Delivery Method



Industry experience or completion of the level two portion of the Water Treatment Technology program.


On completion of this course, students should:

  • Be familiar with and able to discuss advanced aspects of coagulation such as the types of non-settleable solids found in surface waters, factors affecting the coagulation process, and methods of optimizing the coagulation process.
  • Be able to identify a number of emerging technologies in the water treatment industry.
  • Be able to conduct basic jar tests and interpret the test results.
  • Be familiar with the DAF process and be able to determine DAF loading rates.
  • Be able to discuss clarification and sedimentation.
  • Be able to explain the differences between earlier forms of ballasted flocculation and the Actiflo process and be able to describe the Actiflo process in detail.

Course Outline

Module A: Advanced Coagulation

  • Basic coagulation
  • Coagulation process
  • Flocculation mixing
  • Benefits of coagulation
  • Streaming current Monitors
  • Electrical aspect of coagulation
  • Particle destabilization
  • Types of coagulants
  • Coagulant and flocculant aids
  • Coagulation review

Module B: Emerging Technologies

  • High-Rate Clarifier Improvements
  • Membrane Technology
  • How Particle Counters are Improving Plant Performance
  • The Emergence of Technology and Communications at a Water Treatment Plant

Module C: Jar Testing

  • What to Look for in a Jar Test
  • Dosing and Dilution Amounts
  • Polymers, Weighting Agents, and Alkalinity Additives
  • Jar Testing a Combination of Chemicals
  • Jar Testing Optimization
  • Jar Testing for Sludge Processing and Review

Module D: Dissolved Air Floatation

  • Dissolved Air Floatation
  • The DAF Process
  • Dissolved Air Floatation Equipment
  • DAF Operations
  • DAF Troubleshooting and Maintenance
  • High-Rate DAF and DAFF
  • DAF Loading Rates and Review

Module E: Clarifiers

  • Clarification and Sedimentation
  • The Hydraulics of Clarification
  • Clarifier Equipment and Maintenance
  • Conventional Clarifiers and the Enhancements of Tube- and Plate-Settling Devices
  • Solids Contact Units
  • Methods of Sludge Processing
  • Clarifier Operations and Review

Module F: Ballasted Flocculation and Actiflo

  • Ballasted Flocculation and Actiflo
  • The Actiflo Process
  • Equipment used in the Actiflo Process
  • Operation of the Actiflo Process

Maximum Completion

30 weeks.

Required Text and Materials

American Water Works Association. Operational control of coagulation and filtration processes. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association, 2000.
Type: Textbook: ISBN: 1-58321-055-5

Additional Requirements

Computer with Internet required.

Open Learning Faculty Member Information

An Open Learning Faculty Member is available to assist students. Primary communication is through Blackboard's "Mail" tool or by phone. Students will receive the necessary contact information when starting the course.


To successfully complete this course students must obtain 50% or higher on the final exam and in the course overall. Students taking this course and applying it towards a Certificate I, II, or III or Water Treatment Diploma must obtain a minimum 60% average in the course overall to meet program requirements.

The final assessment will be determined on the following basis:

Midterm 1 25%
Midterm 2 25%
Final exam 50%