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Thompson Rivers University
Thompson Rivers University

VTEC 1693: Anatomy and Physiology 2


Students focus on internal body systems in domestic animals, in addition to avian anatomy and physiology, building on their knowledge from Anatomy and Physiology 1. Students perform a necropsy including fine needle aspirate, joint tap, and skin scraping and demonstrate knowledge of therio, including small animal vaginal cytology and semen collection. Students also perform slide creation and examine histological samples.

Learning outcomes

  1. Identify the major muscles of the animal body and describe the activity of contraction and extension
  2. Describe major clinical conditions associated with each body system covered
  3. Explain cardiac function and describe blood circulation in mammals
  4. Articulate the role of pertinent aspects of reproduction in domestic animals
  5. Identify avian anatomy and describe the physiology of different species
  6. Demonstrate necropsy skills including fine needle aspirates, skin scraping, synovial fluid analysis and cell cytology
  7. Explain gestation times and reproduction differences including performing vaginal cytology and semen collection methods of companion animals

Course topics

Module 1: Muscles

Module 2: Cardiovascular System

Module 3: Respiratory System

Module 4: Digestive System

Module 5: Urinary System

Module 6: Endocrine, Immunity and Defense

Module 7: Reproductive System

Module 8: Necropsy

Module 9: Cytology

Module 10: Avian Anatomy and Physiology

Required text and materials

The following textbooks would have been purchased in VTEC 1101 and VTEC 1593. If students did not take VTEC 1101 and VTEC 1593 and/or don't already own the required textbooks, please be aware that students will need to purchase them. To do so, please contact Enrolment Services at or 1.800.663.9711 (toll-free in Canada), 250.852.7000 (Kamloops, BC), and 1.250.852.7000 (International).

  1. Bassert, J. M. (2018). McCurnin’s clinical textbook for veterinary technicians (10th ed.). Elsevier. 
    Type: Textbook. ISBN-13: 978-0-323-72200-1
  2. Colville, T. P., & Bassert, J. M. (2024). Clinical Anatomy and Physiology for Veterinary Technicians (4th ed.). Elsevier. 
    Type: Textbook. ISBN-13: 978-0-323-79341-4 
  3. Colville, T. P., & Bassert, J. M. (2024). Laboratory Manual for Clinical Anatomy and Physiology for Veterinary Technicians (4th ed.). Elsevier.
    Type: Textbook. ISBN-13: 978-0-323-79342-1


Please be aware that should your course have a final exam, you are responsible for the fee to the online proctoring service, ProctorU, or to the in-person approved Testing Centre. Please contact with any questions about this.

To successfully complete this course, students must achieve a passing grade of 60% or higher on the overall course, and 50% or higher on the final mandatory exam.

The following table illustrates how your final grade will be determined for this course.

Assignment 1: The Muscular System 10%
Assignment 2 : Cardiovascular 5%
Quiz 1: Muscles and Cardiovascular 5%
Assignment 3: Intubation 2%
Quiz 2: Cardiovascular and Respiration 5%
Quiz 3: Digestion and Urinary System 5%
Assignment 4: Vaginal Cytology 8%
Quiz 4: Endocrine, Immunity, Defense, Reproduction and Semen Collection 5%
Assignment 5: Necropsy Photo Story 10%
Quiz 5: Necropsy and Cytology 5%
Final Exam (mandatory) 40%
Total 100%

Open Learning Faculty Member Information

An Open Learning Faculty Member is available to assist students. Students will receive the necessary contact information at the start of the course.

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