VTEC 1243: Clinical Pathology 2 - Urinalysis and Microbiology


Students are introduced to veterinary urinalysis, veterinary microbiology and the application of methods in this continuation of Clinical Pathology 1. Hands on opportunities are provided to perform urinalysis, and microbiology techniques that are routinely done in a veterinary clinic or facility. Students focus on accuracy, efficiency and safe laboratory procedures.

Learning outcomes

  1. Describe the structure and function of various microorganisms, including common bacteria and fungi.
  2. Collect a variety of samples such as urine, ear swabs, abscess swabs, skin scraping etc. in a safe and appropriate manner.
  3. Safely and effectively obtain urine specimens from dogs and cats utilizing a variety of techniques and to recognize which technique is appropriate for each circumstance.
  4. Culture, identify and perform antibiotic sensitivity testing on common bacteria.
  5. Culture and identify common dermatophytes.
  6. Differentiate between gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
  7. Perform a complete urinalysis to determine the health of an animal.

Course topics

  • Module 1: Macroanalysis of Urine - Gross Examination
  • Module 2: Macroanalysis of Urine - Chemical Examination
  • Module 3: Urine Collection - Lab Information
  • Module 4: Micro Urinalysis
  • Module 5: Microbiology
  • Module 6: Nutritional Requirements of Bacteria
  • Module 7: Bacterial Reproduction
  • Module 8: Control of Microorganisms
  • Module 9: Mycology - Viruses and Prions
  • Module 10: Normal Flora

Required text and materials

The following materials are required for this course:

  1. Sink, C. A., & Weinstein, N. M., (2012). Practical Veterinary Urinalysis (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Type: Textbook: ISBN: 978-0-47095824-7
  1. Bassert, J.M. (2018). McCurnin’s Clinical Textbook for Veterinary Technicians (9th ed.) Elsevier.
    Type: Textbook. ISBN: 978-0-323-39461-1

The following textbook would have been purchased in VTEC 1143 and VTEC 1201. Students who did not take VTEC 1143 and VTEC 1201 and/or do not already own the required textbook will need to purchase it. To do so, please contact Enrolment Services at student@tru.ca or 1.800.663.9711 (toll-free in Canada), 250.852.7000 (Kamloops, BC), and 1.250.852.7000 (International).

  1. Rosenfeld, A. J., & Dial, S. M. (2010). Clinical pathology for the veterinary team. Wiley. Type:
    Textbook: ISBN: 978-0-813-81008-9

Additional Resource:

Students may also find the following resource useful for looking up any terms in the course with which are not familiar:

  1. Merck Veterinary Manual

Required Lab Supplies:

The following three items will be included in the student’s course package:

  1. 10 Blood Agar Plates
  2. 3 Mueller Hinton II Agar Plates
  3. 3 Bacitracin Antimicrobial Susceptibility Discs

Note: It is important to refrigerate the agar plates upon receipt.

The following are required items that students are responsible for purchasing from the suggested suppliers:

Note: Some items required for purchase may be available at the placement location. It is the student’s responsibility to confirm that equipment and supplies are available at the placement location if they choose not to purchase.

  1. 5 inoculating loops. Purchase from Amazon.ca, 50 loops, 50 Pcs Inoculating Loops, (Approximately $11.00 as of April 2022)
  2. 1 Gram’s stain kit. Purchased from Amazon.ca, Innovating Science Gram's Stain Kit, (Approximately $58.00 as of April 2022)

Required Lab Equipment (at the placement location):

  1. Microscope
  2. Refractometer
  3. Centrifuge
  4. Blood machine—optional

Note: A microscope, refractometer, and centrifuge should be available for use at the student’s placement location. If any of these items are not available, it is the student’s responsibility to secure the item(s) in order to complete assignments.

Additional requirements

Students will also need the following:

  • A computer with Internet access
  • A video recording device


Please be aware that should your course have a final exam, students are responsible for the fee to the online proctoring service, ProctorU, or to the in person approved Testing Centre. Please contact exams@tru.ca with any questions about this.

To successfully complete this course, students must achieve a passing grade of 60% or higher on the overall course, and 50% or higher on the final mandatory exam.

Quiz 1: Urinary Collection Techniques 2%
Assignment 1: Bladder Palpations, Free Catch, and Specific Gravity 2%
Assignment 2: Male Canine Catheterization 2%
Quiz 2: Macroanalysis and Microanalysis of Urine 2%
Assignment 3: Feline Cystocentesis 5%
Assignment 4: Complete Urinalyses (Ongoing) 8%
Assignment 5: Microanalysis of Urine 6%
Quiz 3: Macrobiology and Microbiology Techniques 2%
Assignment 6: Build an Incubator 3%
Quiz 4: Reproduction and Infection Control 2%
Assignment 7: Mouth Swab 8%
Assignment 8: Direct Swab 8%
Quiz 5: Mycology and Normal Flora 2%
Assignment 9: Urine Culture and Sensitivity 8%
Final Exam (mandatory) 40%
Total 100%

Open Learning Faculty Member Information

An Open Learning Faculty Member is available to assist students. Students will receive the necessary contact information at the start of the course.

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