GEOG 2231
Geography of British Columbia

3.0 Credits


This course uses the concepts and methods of regional geography to explore the character of British Columbia, through study of the province's diverse physical and human landscapes. Students focus on geographic patterns and on the interaction of physiography, climate, settlement, resource utilization, and economic activity. Students also examine how the province fits into a variety of regional settings: the Pacific Northwest, Canada, North America, and the Pacific Rim.

Delivery Method



Recommended: A first-year course in geography (e.g., GEOG 1221 or GEOG 1191), geology (e.g., GEOL 1011 or GEOL 1111) or equivalent skills and knowledge would provide useful background information.


Although you will not become an expert in the field of geography by taking this course, you will come to understand the range and nature of the geographer's interest in the earth through a focus on the regional geography of British Columbia.

By the end of the course you should be able to:

  • Define key concepts used in regional geography and other approaches of geographic analysis, with particular application to the geography of British Columbia.
  • Describe the physical geography of British Columbia, including the major factors underlying geographic patterns of physiography, climate, soils, vegetation, and their associated hazards.
  • Explain how patterns of present ethnic composition in the province have arisen, with particular reference to First Nations, Europeans, and Asians.
  • Discuss the structure of British Columbia's economy and the variations in type and level of economic activity in the different regions of the province.
  • Indicate British Columbia's position in a variety of regional economic contexts.
  • Identify the nature and importance of external linkages in the development of the province.
  • Discuss the spatial structure of biophysical resource use in British Columbia, including forest-based, agricultural, and commercial-fishing industries.
  • Discuss the spatial structure of physical resource use and the service sector in British Columbia, including metal mining, energy, water resources, tourism, recreation, and conservation.
  • Explain the evolution of settlement patterns in British Columbia, including the development and location of urbanization.
  • Evaluate British Columbia's position in a variety of regional contexts and the impact of external linkages on the development of the province.
  • Present an informed analysis of the physical and human geography of British Columbia and its regions.

Course Outline

GEOG 2231: Geography of British Columbia includes five units:

Unit 1: Regional Geography and Physical Landscape

  • Topic 1: Regional Geography of British Columbia
  • Topic 2: Physical Geography and Vegetation of British Columbia
  • Topic 3: Geoenvironmental Hazards and Risks in British Columbia

Unit 2: Peoples of British Columbia

  • Topic 1: First Nations, Territories, and Treaties
  • Topic 2: Europeans in the Pacific Northwest
  • Topic 3: Asians in British Columbia

Unit 3: Resource Geography of British Columbia--Abiotic Resources

  • Topic 1: Spatial Economy and Resource Overview
  • Topic 2: Geography of Mining
  • Topic 3: Geography of Energy
  • Topic 4: Geography of Water Resources

Unit 4: Resource Geography of British Columbia--Biotic Resources

  • Topic 1: Geography of the Forest Industry
  • Topic 2: Geography of Agriculture
  • Topic 3: Geography of Marine and Fresh Water Resources
  • Topic 4: Geography of Tourism, Recreation, and Conservation

Unit 5: Rural Settlements and Urbanization of British Columbia

  • Topic 1: Rural and Urban Landscapes of British Columbia

Course Summary: The Regional Character of British Columbia

Maximum Completion

30 weeks.

Required Text and Materials

  1. McGillivray, B. Geography of British Columbia, People and Landscapes in Transition. 3rd edition. 307 pages. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011.
  1. Wood, C. J. B. . British Columbia, The Pacific Province: Geographical Essays. Canadian Western Geographical Series 36. 358 pages. Victoria: Western Geographical Press, 2001.
  1. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests Research Branch. Biogeoclimatic Zones of British Columbia. 1999.
    Type: Map

Please note that the Wood textbook is made available to you as a PDF on your course home page; you must download and save it for your use throughout the course

Additional Requirements

Students should refer to "Course Delivery Formats" in the TRU-Open Learning Calendar or on the TRU-OL web site for computer requirements (see:

Open Learning Faculty Member Information

An Open Learning Faculty Member is available to assist students. Primary communication is through the "mail" tool in the Learning Environment or by phone. You will receive the necessary contact information when you start your course.


In order to successfully complete this course, you must obtain at least 50% on the final examination and 50% overall. The following chart shows how the final grade is determined for this course.

Assignment 1 - Regional Geography and Physical Landscape 5%
Assignment 2 - Peoples of British Columbia 5%
Assignment 3 - Resource Geography of British Columbia-Abiotic Resources 5%
Assignment 4 - Resource Geography of British Columbia-Biotic Resources 5%
Assignment 5 - Rural Settlements and Urbanization of British Columbia 5%
Course Project - Research Essay * 25%
Final Exam * 50%
Total 100%

* Mandatory