Thompson Rivers University
Thompson Rivers University
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On-Campus

There are a number of ways to register for on-campus courses at TRU which are determined by your program of study.

Open Learning

We offer 590 courses by distance learning. These courses are offered in several formats, including print-based, web-based and online.


Continuing Studies

Community U provides individuals and organizations with formal and non-formal opportunities to pursue personal and professional goals life-long.

Trades and Technology

Apprenticeship, foundation and continuing studies courses are offered in construction, mechanical trades, professional driving and more.

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Courses - B
Title Name Delivery
BBUS 3160

 Canadian Securities and the Investment Industry (3,0,0)

3 credits
The Canadian Securities Institute course examines the fundamentals of investments and all aspects of the securities industry necessary to prepare students to write the Canadian Securities Licensing exam. Note: Students may not receive credit for this course towards the Finance Major. Students will receive general BBA credit.
More information about this course

Campus
BBUS 3331

 Introduction to Production and Operations Management

3 credits
This course examines the functional area of production and operations management as practised in the manufacturing industries. The course includes decision making, capacity planning, aggregate planning, forecasting, inventory management, distribution planning, materials requirements planning (MRP), project management, and quality control. Advanced standing may be approved by; CMA, PMAC. Exclusions: SCMN 4310
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 3440

 Business-To-Business Marketing (4,0,0)

3 credits
The marketing of products and services to business, organizations, and institutions is a major component of the marketing activity in the economy. This course focuses on the importance of micro-markets and the decision-making process and decision-making units in the organization. It further introduces students to the growing importance of E-Commerce in business-to-business marketing. Prerequisite: MKTG 3430
More information about this course

Campus
BBUS 3611

 Open Thinking

3 credits
This competency-based, paced course examines "open thinking," as well as good strategic thinking and creative thinking. Neither is separate from the other. Students explore open thinking by practicing techniques that encourage creativity, identifying strategies to broaden their approach to issues, and analyzing the context within which they traditionally think.
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 3631

 Open Communication: Effective

3 credits
This competency-based, paced course teaches the theories and strategies that sustain and foster effective communication skills for management. It provides students with the professional skills and knowledge to communicate successfully on many levels, including writing, speaking, conducting meetings, giving presentations and interpersonal dialogues, and using electronic media. Students are given the opportunity to work with various techniques to learn valuable communication tools to successfully support them in their managerial careers and personal lives. (CA)
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 3661

 Strategic Human Resource Management

3 credits
This competency-based, paced course provides students with the understanding, knowledge, and skills to make strategic human resource management decisions. The course emphasizes practical activities, ranging from assessment of the global economic environment and organizational cul-ture to the analysis of competencies and the implementation of human resource decisions. Students carry out a detailed strategic analysis of a human resource management issue in their organizations, and, in doing so learn how to effectively manage human resources in a way that contributes to improved performance, productivity, and morale. (CA, CMA, PMAC)
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 3671

 Contemporary Leadership

3 credits
In this competency-based, paced course, students examine the relationship between leadership and management, explore the attributes of a good leader, and focus on developing their own leadership style. Attention is also given to analyzing leadership stories, identifying relationships and connections and examining the level of alignment between organizational and personal values. Students are required to apply theoretical concepts to workplace, community, or volunteer experiences.
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 4135

 Motivation and Productivity

3 credits
BBUS 4135 (previously ADMN 413) is an applied course which focuses on the supervisory aspects of management. The course emphasises a practical approach to the effect of supervisory practices on employee motivation and productivity by requiring your active participation in developing case studies based on your own work-related experiences. Thus, as current management practices and theories are introduced and studied, you will obtain a "real world" perspective of the material by being able to relate the topics to your own management style and to performance problems which may exist where you work. Prerequisites: A minimum of 60 credits of post-secondary education and a course in business management (e.g. MNGT 1211 (previously BUSM 121)) are recommended. Students must have sufficient knowledge and experience to complete questionnaires and carry out exercises involving observations, analyses, case studies, and practical applications pertaining to their job. Exclusions: Students with credit for MNGT 2131 (previously BUSM 213) may not take this course for further credit.
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 4453

 E-Business in a Competitive Environment

6 credits
This competency-based course explores the realities of doing business in the fast-moving and rapidly changing world of the Internet. Ways of determining viability of ideas are required in order to launch a totally "virtual" business, add aspects of e-commerce to an existing business operation, or use the new technologies to streamline and add value to dedicated bricks-and-mortar business. By studying existing e-business models, analyzing industry realities, and examining the implications of the Internet on start-up and incumbent businesses, students develop an understanding of how and where to seek competitive advantage for business ideas and plans. The development of an e-business plan is a major focus of this course.
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 4541

 International Business

3 credits
This course examines world trade and the processes that business managers go through in order to establish or expand operations into international markets. Students explore various levels of business involvement in foreign markets, combining historical, theoretical, and current perspectives on international business and world trade. They learn the terminology of international business, and examine the influence of forces such as culture, economics, politics, and geography on business and markets. Students are also introduced to international organizations including the World Bank, the International Development Association, the World Trade Organization, and the International Monetary Fund. Each module also introduces Canadian issues and perspectives on international business and trade, and lists websites and other resources that offer a wealth of information for Canadians doing business globally. This course was previously known as ADMN 380.
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 4833

 Effective Leadership

3 credits
This competency-based, paced course provides students with the opportunity to develop a repertoire of leadership skills for diverse organizational and community contexts. Working through the course, students increase their awareness of the interaction between self, systems, and organizational context. Students explore how leaders take action to make a positive difference and investigate various approaches to leadership within a variety of contexts. By the end of the course students are expected to articulate their vision of how to lead in diverse situations. Students are required to apply theoretical concepts to workplace, community, or volunteer experiences.
More information about this course

Distance
BBUS 4891

 Strategic Thinking for Leadership

Distance
BIOL 500

 General Biology (5,0,2)

4 credits
ABE - Advanced: This basic Biology course introduces students to the fundamentals of Biology. It includes a brief study of the cell, Binomial Nomenclature, and the major Phyla of Plant and Animal Kingdoms. Fundamentals of plant and animal physiology are introduced with emphasis on the inter-relationship among living organisms. Note: This course is offered in Williams Lake. Required Lab: BIOL 0500L Exclusion: BIOL 0501
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 501

 General Biology (Grade 11)


This course is equivalent to Biology 11. The general aims of this course are to give a basic understanding of biological processes and to introduce a number of fundamental biological terms. To begin, students review the scientific method, microscope use, and basic cell biology. They then consider the evolution of biological diversity. As they explore the diversity of life, students progress from microbes to plants and animals, learning from observation in labs and neighbourhood field trips as well as from the excellent textbook and online resources. Finally they apply their biology skills to ecology. Prerequisites: Science 10 or equivalent. English reading skills at Grade 11 level are important for success in the course. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 0500, BIOL 0501
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 600

 Human Biology (5,0,2)(L)

4 credits
ABE - Provincial: A study of the major principles of human anatomy and physiology from the origin of atoms and elements through to the structure and function of molecules, cells, tissues, organs and body systems. Introduces the basic principles of Genetics and Evolution. Laboratory work involves organizing observations, drawing conclusions and effective communication. Prerequisite: CHEM 0500 Note: This course is taught by the University Preparation Department. Required Lab: BIOL 0600L Exclusion: BIOL 0601
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Campus
BIOL 601

 Provincial Biology


This provincial-level course in human biology is equivalent to Grade 12 biology and one of the optional science courses that may be used to meet the requirements of the Adult Secondary Graduation Diploma awarded by the Ministries of Education and Advanced Education. Topics include cell biology, photosynthesis and cellular respiration, human anatomy and physiology, and genetics. The course imparts an understanding and appreciation for the way scientific knowledge is obtained and organized, so that students can apply these methods to everyday life. This course is concerned primarily with human biology (reproduction, circulation, the heart, immunity, the nervous system, genetics, etc...), although there are several textbook chapters concerned with biological topics such as diffusion, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cell division, evolution and ecology. Prerequisites: Science 10 or equivalent. Recommended: English reading skills at a Grade 11 level, BIOL 0501. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 0600, BIOL 0601
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 620

 Introduction to Life Sciences (5,0,2)(L)

4 credits
ABE - Provincial: This course introduces students to ecological principles, stressing interdependence between the form and function of organisms that enables them to survive in their environment. Prerequisite: CHEM 0500 or Chemistry 11. Note: This course is taught by the University and Employment Preparation Department Required Lab: BIOL 0620L
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 1001

 Understanding Biology

3 credits
Students are introduced to biological principles applicable to many contemporary problems of human well-being and long-term survival. The aim of the course is to provide students who will not major in science with a scientific perspective. Students who plan to take advanced courses in biology should register in BIOL 1113 and BIOL 1213, rather than BIOL 1001. This course was previously known as BISC 100. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but a Provincial Grade 12 Diploma or equivalent is recommended. ***This course is only available for registration to students residing in Canada***
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 1040

 Biology of the Environment (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Non-science students who have a keen interest in the environment focus on the underlying ecological principles that shape our world. They examine evolution and the ecological diversity to which it leads. Students consider the effects of the tremendous increase in human population growth on renewable and non-renewable resources, acid rain, climate change, toxins in the environment, and the biodiversity crisis. At the end of the course, students discuss ecologically sustainable development. Labs and field trips enhance students' learning experience. Prerequisite: 1st year standing Required Lab: BIOL 1040L Note: Science students do not receive credit for BIOL 1040
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 1050

 Biology of Humans (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
This course is designed as a science elective for Arts and Education students, or others interested in Human Biology; no previous background in biology or science is required. Students learn about the molecules, cells and tissues that comprise the human body, selected body systems, and diseases that affect them. Cell division and cancer is discussed, as well as the structure and function of DNA. Inheritance, genetic diseases and genetic engineering are also considered. Labs contribute to the understanding of this material by providing hands-on experience. Students participate in a group project to research a topic of their choice in relation to any human disease. Prerequisite: 1st year standing Note: Science students do not receive credit for Biology 1050 Required Lab: BIOL 1050L
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Campus
BIOL 1110

 Principles of Biology 1 (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
This course is designed for biology or science majors. Students examine the molecular basis of cellular processes including energy transfer and the storage and use of genetic information. Prerequisite: Biology 11 or 12 with a C+ or better, Chemistry 11 or CHEM 0500 Required Lab: BIOL 1110L Note: Students repeating a course may be exempt from the laboratory component of that course if they took the course within two years and obtained a grade of at least 70% in the laboratory component of the course. The grade they previously obtained in the laboratory component of the course will be used in the calculation of their course grade.
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 1113

 Principles of Biology I

3 credits
This course is designed for biology or science majors. Students examine the molecular basis of cellular processes including energy transfer and the storage and use of genetic information. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but Test CH11-Chemistry 11, Test BI11 - Biology 11 with a score of C+ or better, Test BI12-Biology 12 with a score of C+ or better are recommended. Students majoring in science or intending to take 2nd year biology courses should take BIOL 1113, its companion course BIOL 1213 and the two laboratory courses BIOL 1115 and BIOL 1215. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 1110, BIOL 1113, BIOL 1311.
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 1115

 Biology Laboratory I

1 credits
In this five-day lab course, students perform experiments that illustrate the principles learned in BIOL 1113. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but prior or concurrent registration in BIOL 1113 or equivalent is strongly recommended.
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 1210

 Principles of Biology 2 (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
This course offers a survey of the kingdoms of life, while emphasizing their ecology and evolutionary relationships. Prerequisite: Biology 11 or 12 with a C+ or better, Chemistry 11 or CHEM 0500 Required Lab: BIOL 1210L Note: Students repeating a course may be exempt from the laboratory component of that course if they took the course within two years and obtained a grade of at least 70% in the laboratory component of the course. The grade they previously obtained in the laboratory component of the course will be used in the calculation of their course grade.
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 1213

 Principles of Biology II

3 credits
This course is designed for biology or science majors, and offers a survey of the kingdoms of life, emphasizing their ecology and evolutionary relationships. BIOL 1215 is the laboratory component. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but Test BI11 - Biology 11 with a score of C+ or better, Test BI12 - Biology 12 with a score of C+ or better, Test CH11 - Chemistry 11 are recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 1210, BIOL 1213, BIOL 1321.
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 1215

 Biology Laboratory II

1 credits
In this five-day lab course, students perform experiements that illustrate the principles learned in BIOL 1213. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but prior or concurrent registration in BIOL 1213 or equivalent is recommended.
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Distance
BIOL 1592

 Human Biology: Anatomy and Physiology 1 (3,0,0)

3 credits
This course is intended primarily for students taking the Nursing and Respiratory Therapy programs. However, space is also available for Academic students. Students examine the anatomy and physiology of human organ systems over the course of two semesters, while focusing on the relationship between structure and function. Prerequisite: Biology 12 with a C+ minimum or BIOL 0600 and Chemistry 11 or CHEM 0500 Note: Students do not receive credit for more than one of BIOL 1592 and BIOL 1593 or BIOL 3540
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 1593

 Anatomy and Physiology I

3 credits
This is the first of two comprehensive theory courses in which students survey the anatomy and physiology of all the human body systems, with an emphasis on the relationship between a body organ's structure and its function. Students who have little formal knowledge of the human body but who wish to train for a career in health-related professions are invited to take this course. BIOL 1595, the laboratory component of BIOL 1593, is usually offered once per year in the summertime in Kamloops BC. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but Test BI11 - Biology 11 with a score of C+ or better or Test BI12 - Biology 12 with a score of C+ or better, Test CH11 - Chemistry 11.
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 1594

 Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory 1 (0,0,2)(L)


This course covers the first half of the laboratory component of anatomy and physiology. Students are introduced to the structure and function of the human body, beginning with an orientation of the body and continuing with the functions of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems (including the integumentary, skeletal, muscular and nervous systems). As well, the healthy functioning of the body and consideration of how each system contributes to overall health and maintenance of homeostasis will be covered. Prerequisite: BIOL 1592 or BIOL 1593 Corequisite: BIOL 1592 Note: Same course as BIOL 1595
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 1595

 Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory I


This in-person laboratory course is the first half of the laboratory component generally required for a fundamental first year anatomy and physiology course. Students are introduced to the structure and function of the human body, beginning with an orientation to the body and proceeding to the functions of a generalized cell. These include the atoms and molecules that make up organic molecules, tissues, organs, and organ systems, as well as the integumentary, skeletal, muscular and nervous systems. Students focus on the healthy functioning of the body, and consider each system's contribution to overall health and the maintenance of homeostasis. Prerequisites: Test BI11 - Biology 11 with a score of C+ or better, Test BI12 - Biology 12 with a score of C+ or better. Recommended: Test CH11 - Chemistry 11, BIOL 1593 (or equivalent theory course). Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 1594, BIOL 1595.
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 1692

 Human Biology: Anatomy and Physiology 2 (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students examine the anatomy and physiology of the human organ systems over the course of two semesters, while focusing on the relationship between structure and function. Prerequisite: BIOL 1592 or BIOL 1593 Note: Students do not receive credit for more than one of BIOL 1692, BIOL 1693 or BIOL 3550
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 1693

 Anatomy and Physiology II

3 credits
Continuing from BIOL 1593: Anatomy and Physiology I, this is the second of two comprehensive theory courses, in which students survey the anatomy and physiology of all the human body systems, with an emphasis on the relationship between a body organ's structure and its function. Students who have little formal knowledge of the human body but who wish to train for a career in health-related professions are invited to take this course. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but Test BI11 - Biology 11 with a score of C+ or better, Test BI12 - Biology 12 with a score of C+ or better, Test CH11 - Chemistry 11, BIOL 1593 are recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 1692, BIOL 1693.
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 1694

 Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory 2 (0,0,2)(L)


This course is the second half laboratory course in anatomy and physiology. Students in the course will learn about the nervous system and the senses as well as the endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, digestive and reproductive systems. Prerequisite: BIOL 1692 or BIOL 1693 Corequisite: BIOL 1692 Note: Same course as BIOL 1695
More information about this course

Campus
BIOL 1695

 Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory II


This in-person laboratory course is the second half of the laboratory component generally required for a fundamental first year anatomy and physiology course. Students focus on the nervous system and the senses, in addition to the endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, digestive and reproductive systems. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but BIOL 1593, BIOL 1595, BIOL 1693 are recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 1694, BIOL 1695.
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 2130

 Cell Biology (3,1*,3*)

3 credits
Students examine eukaryotic cells, while relating structure to function. Topics include instrumentation and techniques used for studying cells and their inner workings; molecules common in various cellular structures; the structure and function of the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and organelles; transport of materials within the cell and secretion; intercellular communication and programmed cell death (apoptosis); and the medical implications of understanding cellular and molecular biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110 (C minimum), CHEM 1500/1510 or CHEM 1500/1520. CHEM 2120 recommended Note: Labs and seminars are offered in alternate weeks Required Lab: BIOL 2130L Required Seminar: BIOL 2130S
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Campus
BIOL 2131

 Cell and Molecular Biology

3 credits
Students examine the basic properties of cells and cell organelles, in addition to the properties of differentiated cell systems and tissues. The course aims to equip students with a basic knowledge of the structural and functional properties of cells. From this fundamental perspective, students are introduced to important scientific literature on the subject of cell biology, and instructed on how to critically examine data and interpretations presented by researchers. Prerequisites: CHEM 1503, CHEM 1505, CHEM 1523, CHEM 1525 Recommended: BIOL 1113, BIOL 1115, BIOL 1213, BIOL 1215. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 2130, BIOL 2131.
More information about this course

Distance
BIOL 2160

 Introductory Microbiology (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Students are introduced to the world of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and viruses, and the important roles they play in ecosystem health. Focusing on the principles and applications of microbiology, course topics include microbial physiology; growth and growth control; gene transfer; gene expression and environmental sensing; disease; and environmental biotechnologies such as wastewater treatment, bioremediation and industrial microbiology. Laboratory sessions provide hands-on training in cell culture techniques, applied microbiology, and manipulation of DNA. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110/1210, CHEM 1500/1510 or CHEM 1500/1520 Required Lab: BIOL 2160L
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Campus
BIOL 2170

 Introduction to Ecology (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Ecology can be described as the scientific study of the natural world. Students are introduced to the basic principles of ecology, and examine relationships among organisms and their environment: from the level of the individual up through populations, communities and ecosystems. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110/1210 Required Lab: BIOL 2170L
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Campus
BIOL 2280

 The Evolution and Ecology of Land Plants (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Through an evolutionary perspective, students examine solutions to the difficulties of life on land that are inherent in the biology of land plants. The course spans groups of plants ranging from miniscule bryophytes to gargantuan trees, both extant and extinct. A weekend field trip is included. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110/1210 Required Lab: BIOL 2280L
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Campus
BIOL 2290

 Evolution of Animal Body Plans (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Students explore the spectacular diversity of animal body plans, and examine the sequence of events that lead to this diversity. Lectures and laboratories emphasize the link between body form, function and phylogeny. The course highlights the diverse roles animals play in natural ecosystems as well as their implications for humans, and examines how animal morphology, development, and molecular biology allows us to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of the Animalia. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110, BIOL 1210 Required Lab: BIOL 2290L
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Campus
BIOL 2300

 Communicating Biology 1 (0,1,0)

1 credits
The communication of scientific discovery is fundamental to all disciplines in Biology. Students develop their ability to convey scientific information and to read scientific literature with understanding. Prerequisite: 2nd year standing, ENGL 1100
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Campus
BIOL 2340

 Introduction to Genetics (3,1*,3*)

3 credits
This course offers a general survey of basic concepts in genetics, with particular emphasis on classical Mendelian genetics, chromosomes and cytogenetics, bacterial genetics with an introduction to gene cloning methods, and the structure, regulation and mutation of genes. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110/1210 (C minimum) Corequisite: BIOL 2130 (recommended) Note: Labs and seminars are offered in alternate weeks Required Lab: BIOL 2340L Required Seminar: BIOL 2340S
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Campus
BIOL 2341

 Introduction to Genetics

3 credits
In this introduction to a fascinating and controversial area of contemporary science, students are presented with basic terms, principles, and research methods used in the study of genetics. Students learn about the transmission, distribution, arrangement, and alteration of genetic information and how it functions and is maintained in populations. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but BIOL 1113, BIOL 1115, BIOL 1213, BIOL 1215, BIOL 2131 are recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 2340, BIOL 2341.
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Distance
BIOL 3000

 Biometrics (3,0,2)(L)

3 credits
Students are introduced to statistical procedures for biological research. Topics include the nature of data, probability, hypothesis testing, goodness of fit, analysis of variance, correlation, and regression. The computer lab laboratory provides students with hands-on computer experience in graphical and statistical analysis. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110 or BIOL 1113 and BIOL 1210 or BIOL 1213 and MATH 1140 or MATH 1141 or MATH 1150 or MATH 1130 Note: Students may normally receive credit for only one of the following: PSYC 2100, PSYC 2101, STAT 2000, STAT 1200, STAT 1201, ECON 2320 Required Lab: BIOL 3000L
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Campus
BIOL 3010

 Bioinformatics (2,1,2)(L)

3 credits
Bioinformatic tools are essential in modern molecular biology, biochemisty and ecology. High throughput DNA, RNA and protein sequencing tools have transformed the way we look at the biological world, and the data sets that life scientists currently face are larger than they have ever been. Students develop research skills required for framing strong hypotheses and performing robust experiments using large DNA and protein sequencing data sets. They examine approaches for data quality assessment and evaluation of bioinformatic tools, which are major themes of the course. Laboratory time provides hands-on experience with analysis of DNA, RNA and protein sequence data, and introduces basic computing tools that are useful for moving data between computer databases and programs. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110 (minimum C+) and COMP 1090 (minimum C+). Recommended - a first year programming course. Required Lab: BIOL 3010L Required Seminar: BIOL 3010S
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Campus
BIOL 3021

 Community & Ecosystem Ecology

3 credits
This course is a survey of the theoretical development of community and ecosystem ecology as a science. Students examine the major influences on the organization and development of ecological communities, including physical constraints and processes, biological interactions within and among species, and the complex interaction of all these factors at varied spatial and temporal scales. Students also examine the classification, diversity and conservation of ecological communities. The course provides extensive experience in the practice of ecology through a field research project. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but 6 credits of introductory biology are recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 3020, BIOL 3021, BIOL 2170.
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Distance
BIOL 3030

 Population Biology (3,1,0)

3 credits
Students are introduced to the study of plant and animal populations and their physical and biological environments. Topics include natural selection and microevolution, demography, population dynamics, competition and predation. Prerequisite: BIOL 2170 or NRSC 2100 (C minimum) Required Seminar: BIOL 3030S
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Campus
BIOL 3100

 Introduction to Animal Behaviour (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Students examine the biological basis of animal behaviour including the genetics and development of behaviour, mate choice, communication, and social behaviour. Prerequisite: BIOL 1110/1210 (C minimum) Corequisite: BIOL 3000 Required Lab: BIOL 3100L
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Campus
BIOL 3101

 Animal Behaviour

3 credits
This course provides a basic introduction to the study of behaviour. Students concentrate on the evolution of behaviour by natural selection, and briefly consider behavioural genetics, development, and mechanistic aspects. The major topics considered include feeding, habitat choice, antipredator behaviour, parental care and reproductive tactics, mating systems, social behaviour, and human behaviour. Students develop a basic understanding of the evolution and adaptation of behaviour. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but BIOL 1113, BIOL 1115, BIOL 1213, BIOL 1215, BIOL 3021 are recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 3100, BIOL 3101.
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Distance
BIOL 3110

 Field Ornithology (1,1,4)

3 credits
This course provides an introduction to the study and identification of birds, with a major emphasis on the birds of British Columbia. By the end of the course, students should be able to recognize most of the birds found in the Kamloops area and be familiar with basic aspects of the ecology and behavior of these species. In addition, this course is designed to help students develop the skills needed to work with birds in the field. To this end, various aspects of bird biology are studied in the lab and the classroom, as well as in the field. Prerequisite: Third year standing or permission of the instructor Required Lab: BIOL 3110L Required Seminar: BIOL 3110S
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Campus
BIOL 3130

 Introduction to Biochemistry (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students examine cellular chemistry and the structure and function of biological molecules including nucleic acids, enzymes and other proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins. The course also provides an introduction to metabolic pathways and bioenergetics including DNA synthesis, transcription and translation, glycolysis, fermentation and respiration, oxidation of fatty acids, and photosynthesis. Prerequisite: BIOL 2130 (C minimum), CHEM 2120 and 2220
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Campus
BIOL 3131

 Introduction to Biochemistry

3 credits
Students are introduced to cellular chemistry in this course. Topics include the structure and function of biological molecules, nucleic acids, enzymes and other proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins. The course also provides an introduction to metabolic pathways and bioenergetics, including glycolysis, fermentation and respiration, oxidation of fatty acids, and photosynthesis. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but BIOL 2131, BIOL 2130, CHEM 2120, CHEM 2220, CHEM 2123, CHEM 2223 are recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 3130, BIOL 3131, CHEM 3730.
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Distance
BIOL 3200

 Immunology (3,0,0)

3 credits
This course addresses the underlying physiological functions of immunology, including tissues, cells, and molecules of the immune system; innate immunity and complement; adaptive immunity-cellular and humoral immune responses; cytokines; T cell activation; the major histocompatability complex; antibody structure and genetics; the immune system and cancer; AIDS; autoimmunity; and hypersensitivity. Prerequisite: BIOL 2130 (C minimum)
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Campus
BIOL 3210

 Microbial Ecology (3,0,0)

3 credits
This course addresses the importance of microorganisms in nature and societies. The interrelationship between microorganisms, plants, animals and their habitats and the role of these relationships in the maintenance of ecological balance is emphasized. Prerequisite: BIOL 2130 (minimum C), BIOL 2160 (minimum C), BIOL 2170 (minimum C) and CHEM 2220. Recommended - BIOL 3130.
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Campus
BIOL 3220

 Natural History (2,0,4)

3 credits
Defined as "the direct knowledge of organisms in their environments," natural history remains a critical link between science and society. In this course, students learn to identify the dominant flora and fauna, as well as their patterns of distribution, in key ecosystems throughout southern British Columbia (or another regional location). Students synthesize key climatic, geological and biotic processes responsible for the observed patterns. Through close reading and emulation of writer-naturalists, students relate the science of natural history to a larger human truth or societal concern. In addition, students evaluate the changing relationship between humans and their inhabited landscapes by considering such topics as invasive species, habitat fragmentation and climate change. Prerequisite: Completion of 60 credits or permission of the instructor Required Lab: BIOL 3220L
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Campus
BIOL 3230

 Biochemistry (3,0,0)

3 credits
This course offers a series of comprehensive lectures on the structure, function, synthesis and degradation of macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates). In addition, the regulatory mechanisms involved in these processes are addressed. Prerequisite: BIOL 3130 (C minimum)
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BIOL 3231

 Biochemistry

3 credits
Students examine the structure, function, synthesis and degradation of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins). The biochemistry of DNA repair and intracellular transport of proteins is also addressed. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but BIOL 3131 with a score of C minimum is recommended.
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BIOL 3260

 Field Botany (1,1,4)(L)

3 credits
This course is an introduction to flowering plant identification and taxonomy of the flora found within a given region. This field-trip based course emphasizes the descriptive morphology and technical identification of the local flora. Students are required to submit a plant collection of twenty-five specimens. Prerequisite: BIOL 2280 or BIOL 3430 or permission of the instructor Required Lab: BIOL 3260L Required Seminar: BIOL 3260S
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BIOL 3290

 Ichthyology (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
This course educates students in the systematics, anatomy, physiology, life history, and ecology of freshwater and marine fishes. Students learn to identify local freshwater fishes, and salmon species. Prerequisite: BIOL 2170 (C minimum) Note: This course is a cross-listing of NRSC 3170 Required Lab: BIOL 3290L
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BIOL 3300

 Communicating Biology 2 (0,1,0)

1 credits
The communication of scientific discovery is fundamental to all disciplines in biology. Students continue to develop their ability to convey scientific information and to read the scientific literature with understanding. Prerequisite: ENGL 1100 or 1110, BIOL 2300, 3rd year standing in a Biology Major Corequisite: Enrolment in a 3rd year biology course
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BIOL 3310

 Developmental Biology (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Students explore animal development and its underlying principles, including an introduction to embryology. Prerequisite: BIOL 2130 and 2340 (C minimum) Corequisite: BIOL 3130 and 3350 Note: BIOL 3310 is offered on alternate years Required Lab: BIOL 3310L
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BIOL 3350

 Molecular Genetics (3,1,0)

3 credits
The discipline of molecular genetics focuses on the structure, organization and regulated expression of heritable information molecules. A significant segment of the course is devoted to the molecular tools used to query and manipulate biological systems. Students also read and discuss current literature on molecular genetics in Seminars. Prerequisite: BIOL 2130 and 2340 (C minimum) Corequisite: BIOL 3130 Required Seminar: BIOL 3350S
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BIOL 3430

 Plants and People (3,0,2)(L)

3 credits
Students explore the human use of plants in the past, the present, and the future, including the origins, evolution and dispersal of plants important to humankind (such as food crops, herbs and spices, medicinal and drug plants, and ornamentals). The social and economic implications of biotechnology and the ecological impact of our current loss of plant biodiversity is also examined. Prerequisite: 3rd year standing Note: BIOL 3430 is offered on alternate years Required Lab: BIOL 3430L
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BIOL 3431

 Plants and People

3 credits
This course analyzes the importance of plants and the role plants have in the local and global community. Through online research and discussion-based activities, students learn about plant biology and how humans have impacted the plant world. Students evaluate the importance of plants as sources of bioactive chemicals and examine the importance of plants as foods, spices, and dyes. Students also have the opportunity to explore the relationships between First Nations people and plants. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but 60 credits is recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 3430, BIOL 3431.
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BIOL 3510

 Plant Physiology (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Students are introduced to the mechanisms and regulation of functional processes within plants that contribute to their growth, assimilation, transport and utilization of water, nutrients, and carbon. Prerequisite: BIOL 2280 (C minimum) Note: BIOL 3510 is offered on alternate years Required Lab: BIOL 3510L
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BIOL 3520

 Cell Physiology (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Students are introduced to the physiochemical basis for cellular activity, with emphasis on energy relationships, functions of cell parts, integration and internal control of cellular activities, and the mechanisms of influence of external factors. Laboratory work provides hands-on experience with the techniques and apparatus used to study cell function. Prerequisite: BIOL 3130 (C minimum) Required Lab: BIOL 3520L
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BIOL 3540

 Human Physiology 1 (3,0,3*)(L)

3 credits
This course provides an introduction to the concepts, principles, and mechanisms that underlie our current understanding of vertebrate physiology. Students explore the components of homeostatic control systems and investigate the integration of these components into functional systems that maintain the steady state in the internal environment. Prerequisite: BIOL 2130 (C minimum) Corequisite: BIOL 3130 Note: Labs are run alternate weeks Note: Students do not receive credit for both BIOL 3540 and BIOL 1590 Required Lab: BIOL 3540L
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BIOL 3550

 Human Physiology 2 (3,0,3*)(L)

3 credits
Students examine the systems that allow animals to maintain homeostasis under a variety of environmental conditions and levels of activity. Topics include gas exchange, regulation of water balance and inorganic ions, digestion and absorption of food, and the regulation of metabolism. Prerequisite: BIOL 3540 (C minimum) Note: Labs are run alternate weeks Note: Students do not receive credit for both BIOL 3550 and BIOL 1690 Required Lab: BIOL 3550L
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BIOL 3701

 Human Anatomy for Health Care Professionals

3 credits
This is an advanced course in human anatomy that is of interest to learners who intend to study physical therapy, occupational therapy, or medicine. The focus of the course is to relate anatomical structures to human activity and function. Students examine the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems in detail, and focus on how they are interconnected. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but 6 credits in introductory anatomy and/or general biology and 60 credits of post-secondary education are recommended.
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BIOL 3800

 Fermentation Processes in Food and Pharmaceutical Production (3,0,0)

3 credits
This course provides students with an understanding of the principles of fermentation technology and knowledge of various factors that have a great impact on the biochemical and physiological basis of fermentation processes. Particular emphasis will be given to those processes that are relevant to the production of food and pharmaceutical products. The course will involve case studies and field trips to local wineries, cheese factories and/or microbreweries. Prerequisite: BIOL 2160 and BIOL 3130
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BIOL 3980

 Introduction to Research (0,1,0)

1 credits
This course is available to 3rd year students contemplating entry into the Honours program or undertaking a Directed Studies research project in their 4th year. The seminar focuses on formulation of a research hypothesis and production of a research proposal in preparation for application to do an Honours or Directed Study research project. Honours students are expected to take this course, although the learning objectives may be completed under the supervision of an individual faculty member. Prerequisite: 3rd year standing in a Bachelor of Science degree program or Bachelor of Natural Resource Science program
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BIOL 4001

 Biostatistics

3 credits
This course explores the nature of data and the challenges involved in collecting and handling it, this includes planning the collection of data necessary to examine a particular problem, manipulation of data, summarizing and describing a data set. It also covers the statistical approach for testing hypotheses, and performing data analysis using current statistical tools as a tool for description and hypotheses testing. Students will also interpret and evaluate statistical analyses used by others, design experiments, and analyze and interpret the results of experiments or observational studies. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but an introductory statistics course and 60 credits of post-secondary education are recommended.
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BIOL 4020

 Limnology (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
This course offers theoretical and applied aspects of limnology. Students consider the ecology of inland water organisms in relation to the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect their interactions and production. One weekend field trip is required. Prerequisite: BIOL 3000, BIOL 2170 (C minimum) Note: This course is cross-listed as NRSC 3260 Required Lab: BIOL 4020L
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BIOL 4090

 Field Methods in Terrestrial Ecology (125 hours)

3 credits
Students participate in an intensive two-week exploration in the field methods used to study terrestrial ecosystems. The course is typically offered immediately after exams in the Winter semester (usually late April or early May). Students learn the field techniques needed for studies of terrestrial ecosystems and carry out individual projects of their own design. Facilities such as the Wells Gray Education and Research Centre are used anda fee is required to meet living expenses. Prerequisite: BIOL 3000, 3020, 3030 (C minimum). BIOL 3100 recommended. Note: BIOL 4090 is offered on alternate years
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BIOL 4100

 Field Methods in Marine Ecology (125 hours)

3 credits
Students participate in an intensive two-week exploration in the field methods used to study marine ecosystems. The course is typically offered immediately after exams in the Winter semester (usually late April or early May). Students learn field and laboratory techniques for sampling, experimentation, and analysis of marine organisms and ecosystems, and carry out individual projects of their own design. Facilities such as the Bamfield Marine Station are utilized, and a fee is required to meet living expenses. Prerequisite: BIOL 3030 or BIOL 2170 and BIOL 2290 (C minimum) Note: BIOL 4100 is offered on alternate years
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BIOL 4110

 Advanced Microbiology Lab (1,1,3)(L)

3 credits
Students apply theories learned in microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology in a hands-on laboratory environment. Emphasis is placed on gaining a deeper understanding of microbial physiology and ecology, and harnessing the diversity of the microbial world to produce value-added products. Students are involved in all aspects of the scientific process including designing experiments, collecting and analyzing data, and preparing formal written reports. Prerequisite: BIOL 2160, BIOL 2130, CHEM 2120/2220, BIOL 3210 recommended Required Lab: BIOL 4110L Required Seminar: BIOL 4110S
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BIOL 4120

 

3 credits
The evolution of flowers has been described as an "abominable mystery." This course examines the evolutionary processes responsible for the extraordinary diversity of flowers. Students consider important trends in floral evolution including variation and speciation, plant mating systems, hybridization and polyploidization, as ·well as the co-evolutionary processes between flowers and their animal pollinators. Prerequisite: BIOL 2280 or BIOL 3430 and permission of the instructor
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BIOL 4130

 Molecular Evolution (3,0,0)

3 credits
The theory of evolution is the single thread that binds together the diverse disciplines that make up the biological sciences. The development of DNA sequencing methodologies since the turn of the century has had an enormous impact on our understanding of the process of evolution. Students focus on how DNA sequence informs us about evolutionary processes. Prerequisite: BIOL 3350 (C minimum)
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BIOL 4140

 Evolution (3,0,0)

3 credits
This course offers a critical appraisal of the evidence for evolution. Students consider the basic principles of natural selection, and the nature and origin of species and higher categories. Prerequisite: BIOL 2280 or BIOL 2290 (minimum C) and BIOL 2170 or BIOL 3030 (minimum C)
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BIOL 4141

 Evolution

3 credits
Students examine central concepts in the contemporary theory of evolution, such as variation, descent, natural selection, adaptation, speciation, and extinction on both micro- and macro-evolutionary scales. Emphasis is placed on presentation of changes in evolutionary thinking and discussion of how the current theory of evolution developed from the time of the Greek philosophers to modern evolutionary synthesis. This historical approach addresses scientific theories are first proposed & continuously modified to accommodate new findings. Students' major projects consist of independent research into current controversies surrounding evolutionary theory. Topics include origins of living systems; species and their origins and extinctions; adaptation and constraints; systematics; evolutionary ethics. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but BIOL 3021 is recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 4140, BIOL 4141.
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BIOL 4150

 Biochemical Techniques 1 (1,1,3)(L)

3 credits
In this laboratory-based course, students are introduced to the techniques used to isolate and study enzymes and other proteins. Emphasis is placed on the development of basic laboratory skills in the context of isolating, purifying and analyzing an enzyme, and lactate dehydrogenase. Prerequisite: BIOL 3230 (C minimum) Required Lab: BIOL 4150L Required Seminar: BIOL 4150S
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BIOL 4160

 Principles of Conservation Biology (2,2,0)

3 credits
Students explore the theory and practice relating to the conservation of threatened organisms and their habitats. Topics include the genetics and demography of small and fragmented populations; global and local conservation problems; and case histories of the conservation of endangered animals and plants. The course includes two compulsory weekend field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 3030 (C minimum) Note: Students do not receive credit for both BIOL 4160 and NRSC 3220 Required Seminar: BIOL 4160S
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BIOL 4210

 Microbial Physiology (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students are introduced to the diversity and complexities of the biochemistry and physiology of microbes. The emphasis is on bacterial growth and its modifications in different environments. Prerequisite: BIOL 2160, BIOL 3230 and BIOL 3350 (minimum C grades). Recommended - BIOL 3520.
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BIOL 4250

 Biochemical Techniques 2 (Recombinant DNA) (1,1,3)(L)

3 credits
In this laboratory-based course, students practice the techniques used to isolate and manipulate nucleic acids. Emphasis is placed on the development of basic laboratory skills and their application to manipulate recombinant DNA molecules. Prerequisite: BIOL 3130 and 3350 (C minimum). BIOL 3230/4150 recommended. Required Lab: BIOL 4250L Required Seminar: BIOL 4250S
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BIOL 4260

 Plant Ecology (3,0,3)(L)

3 credits
Students examine the ecology of plants at an individual, population, and community scale. The ecological physiological constraints of being a plant is reviewed before exploring species interactions with the natural environment and with other species. Students also consider plant community patterns in time and space. Topics include issues in plant conservation, community attributes such as productivity and diversity, and the influence of scale and heterogeneity on sampling design and analysis. Field trips may occur on weekends. This course is offered in alternate years. Prerequisite: BIOL 2170 and 2280 Required Lab: BIOL 4260L
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BIOL 4270

 Terrestrial Vertebrate Zoology (2,0,3)(L)

3 credits
This advanced zoology course offers an examination of the origins, natural history and behavioral ecology of terrestrial vertebrates. Students construct hypotheses about the paleontological history of each living group of terrestrial vertebrates. Traits of extinct and living forms are used to analyze how adaptation to different environments has generated the diversity within each living group. Laboratory periods and field trips provide opportunities for students to observe the classification, life histories and ecology of species found in British Columbia. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in each of BIOL 2170; BIOL 2290 Note: Field trips may occur on weekends Required Lab: BIOL 4270L
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BIOL 4300

 Communicating Biology 3 (0,1,0)

1 credits
The communication of scientific discovery is fundamental to all disciplines in biology. Students augment the skills developed in BIOL 2300 and 3300, and further develop their ability to convey scientific information and to read the scientific literature with understanding. Students are also introduced to the typical formats and media in which scientific results are presented. Prerequisite: ENGL 1100 or 1110, BIOL 3300, 3rd year standing in a Biology Major program Corequisite: Enrolment in a 3rd or 4th year biology course
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BIOL 4350

 Regulation of Gene Expression (3,0,0)

3 credits
The heritable information stored in the genome of an organism is expressed in a highly regulated fashion to respond to changes in the environment (prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes), or to generate a diverse set of cell types (metazoans). Students examine the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prerequisite: BIOL 3350 and 3130 (C minimum)
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BIOL 4480

 Directed Studies in Biology (L)

3 credits
This course is designed to allow students to undertake an investigation on a specific topic as agreed upon by the faculty member and the student. Prerequisite: Permission of the supervisor and co-supervisor required
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BIOL 4481

 Directed Studies

3 credits
This course is a requirement for completion of the Bachelor of Science (Biology/ Life Science Major). Students are required to review the literature in their area of study, offer critical assessment of that literature, and submit a comprehensive review paper. Prerequisite: General education, Lower-level requirements of the Bachelor of Science degree, A minimum of 15 upper-level credits in biology. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BIOL 4480, BIOL 4481.
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BIOL 4490

 ***Advanced Seminar - Selected Topics in Biology (1,2,0)

3 credits
In this advanced seminar course, students focus on recent developments in modern biology. Topics are selected from the instructor's area of expertise and vary from year to year. Prerequisite: 4th year standing and permission of the instructor
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BIOL 4600

 Microscopy Techniques (1,2,0)

3 credits
Students learn about basic optics as well as types of microscopy from compound light microscopes and fluoescence microscopes to transmission and scanning lectron microscopes. Students will be exposed to the basic methods of preparing samples for examination by light and electron microscopy. Prerequisite: BIOL 2130 in addition to third-year standing
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BIOL 4980

 Honours Seminar in Biological Sciences (0,2,0)

2 credits
Students enrolled in the Biology Honours program explore and discuss topics of particular relevance to the field of biological science with a focus on how scientific research is carried out and presented. Honours students are also provided with constructive criticism of their thesis research project. The seminars consist of readings, group discussions, and presentations by students, interested faculty and guest speakers. Prerequisite: Acceptance into the Biology Honours program, upon completion of 3rd year of a Bachelor of Science program with a Major in Biology. General requirements for acceptance are: 4th year standing in the Bachelor of Science program, minimum GPA of 3.0, with at least a B- in all BIOL and required ENGL courses, and identification of a supervisor for the Honours Thesis (BIOL 4990). Corequisite: BIOL 4990. This course is available only to students accepted into the Biology Honours program of the Bachelor of Science degree. It is taken at the same time as BIOL 4990 - Honours Thesis. Note: (if applicable): Students register in this course in the Fall and Winter semesters of their last academic year of study.
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BIOL 4990

 Honours Thesis in Biological Sciences

6 credits
Students are required to conduct an original research project in the Biology Honours program of the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree. The project is completed under the direction of a faculty member in the Department of Biological Sciences, or a scientist from outside the department with co-supervision by a Biology faculty member. Students accepted into the Biology Honours program register in this course in both the Fall and Winter semesters of their final academic year. Prerequisite: Acceptance into the Biology Honours program, upon completion of 3rd year of a Bachelor of Science program with a Major in Biology. General requirements for acceptance are: 4th year standing in the B.Sc. program, minimum GPA of 3.0, with at least a B- in all BIOL and required ENGL courses, and identification of a supervisor for the Honours Thesis (BIOL 4990). Corequisite: BIOL 4980
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BLAW 2910

 Commercial Law (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students examine the legal environment in which businesses operate and how common law and different provincial and federal government statutes influence decision making. Topics include origins of Canadian law; resolving disputes and navigating the court system; tort law, contract law; sales of goods and consumer protection; methods of carrying on business; workplace law; property law; and creditor law. Prerequisite: ENGL 1100
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BLAW 2911

 Commercial Law

3 credits
Students examine the legal environment in which businesses operate and how common law, provincial and federal government statutes influence decision making. Topics include the legal system and the law relating to torts, contracts, forms of business organization, agency, sale of goods, consumer protection, real estate, intellectual property, and employment. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but ENGL 1101 is recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BLAW 2910, BLAW 2911, TMGT 2250.
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BLAW 2921

 Law for Public Sector Managers

3 credits
Students study the key aspects of Canadian law and the legal institutions of relevance to public sector managers. Topics include the role of law in public sector management; constitutional law; organization of the courts; alternative dispute resolutions; administrative law; human rights law; statutes and their interpretation; administrative law and natural justice; administrative law and advocating before administrative tribunals; administrative law and challenging decisions; freedom of information and privacy; technology and the law; and public sector ethics. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but ENGL 1101 is recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BLAW 2121, BLAW 2921.
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BLAW 3910

 Real Estate Law (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students investigate the legal principles and law relating to acquiring property rights in and developing legal interests in land. Case law and statutes are studied in depth to reinforce an understanding of the legal concepts. Topics include acquiring an interest in land; long and short-term commercial leases; aboriginal land interests; environmental responsibility for land owners and tenants; and organizations impacting land development and marketing. Prerequisite: BLAW 2910 with minimum C- or equivalent
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BLAW 3920

 Employment Law (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students investigate the legal principles and law relating to the individual employer-employee relationship and how its influences business decision making. Topics include human rights issues; contract of employment; legal issues during the course of employment; statutes that impact the employment relationship; monitoring the employment relationship; and termination of the employment relationship. Prerequisite: BLAW 2910 (minimum C-); HRMN 2820 (minimum C-); or equivalent Note: Students cannot receive credit for more than one of BLAW 3920, BLAW 3921 or BBUS 3920
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BLAW 3921

 Employment Law

3 credits
Students investigate the legal principles and law relating to the individual employer-employee relationship and how its influences business decision making. Case law and statutes are studied in depth to reinforce an understanding of the legal concepts. Topics include human rights issues; the contract of employment; legal issues during employment; statutes that impact the employment relationship; monitoring the employment relationship; and termination of employment. Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for the course, but BLAW 2911, HRMN 2821 are recommended. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BLAW 3920, BLAW 3921.
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BUSN 3980

 Business Research Methodology (0,3,0)

3 credits
Students learn to identify and formulate a research question, select and apply appropriate quantitative and qualitative research methods, and present research findings. A strong focus is placed on ethical issues relevant for research in the business and economics disciplines. Topics include an introduction to research methodology; defining the problem statement; critical literature review; theoretical framework and hypothesis development; elements of research design; data collection methods; experimental designs; experimental designs; measurement of variables; sampling; research reports; research ethics; and a review of quantitative data analysis. Prerequisite: CMNS 1290; ECON 2330 or equivalent Note: Students cannot receive credit for BUSN 3980 and BBUS 3980
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BUSN 3990

 ***Selected Topics in Business Administration (3,0,0)

3 credits
The subject matter in this course will vary from semester to semester depending upon the interests of students and faculty. Courses are taught by visiting professors to instill their unique perspectives or regular faculty to address emerging topics in a discipline, share research or teaching interests, or test potential new courses. Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor Note: Students cannot receive credit for both BUSN 3990 and BBUS 3990
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BUSN 4960

 Directed Studies in Business Administration

6 credits
Individuals or groups of students engage in independent study, research, or practice related to a topic in business administration under faculty supervision. The supervisor(s) determines the appropriate curriculum, evaluation methods, and credit assignment in consultation with students and subject to the approval of the department chairperson(s) and dean. Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor Note: Students cannot receive credit for BUSN 4960 and BBUS 4960
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BUSN 4980

 Honours Thesis (0,3,0)(0,3,0)

6 credits
Students in the Honours Option-Thesis Route in the Bachelor of Business Administration degree prepare and defend a thesis in accordance with the policies established by the School of Business and Economics. The thesis is completed under the supervision of a faculty member and is evaluated by their thesis supervisor and a second reader. Prerequisite: BUSN 3980 (minimum C-) or equivalent; permission of the program advisor Note: Students cannot receive credit for more than one of BUSN 4980 or BBUS 4980
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BUSN 4990

 ***Selected Topics in Business Administration (3,0,0)

3 credits
The subject matter in this course varies from semester to semester depending upon the interests of students and faculty. Courses are taught by visiting professors to instill their unique perspectives or regular faculty to address emerging topics in a discipline, share research or teaching interests, or test potential new courses. Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor Note: Students cannot receive credit for both BUSN 4990 and BBUS 4990
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BUSN 5010

 Managerial Statistics (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students examine the statistical methods and tools required for decision making in today's business environment. Topics include descriptive statistics and numerical measures, statistical inferences with two populations, hypothesis tests and nonparametric methods, analysis of variance, simple regression models, multiple regression models, regression and the model building process, regression models with categorical dependent variables and applied models with categorical dependent variables. Prerequisite: Admission to the GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 5010, BUSN 5011 and GBUS 5010
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BUSN 5011

 Managerial Statistics

3 credits
Students examine the statistical methods and tools required for decision making in today's business environment. Topics include descriptive statistics and numerical measures, statistical inferences with two populations, hypothesis tests and nonparametric methods, analysis of variance, simple regression models, multiple regression models, regression and the model building process, regression models with categorical dependent variables and applied models with categorical dependent variables. Prerequisite: Admission to the GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 5010, BUSN 5011, GBUS 5010-Applied Statistics
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BUSN 5020

 Financial Accounting (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to understand financial statements. They analyze the many accounting policy choices available to companies, and the consequences of these choices for users. Topics include recording basic financial transactions, financial statement preparation, adjusting entries, accounting for receivables and inventories, depreciation and sale of capital assets, bonds and long-term debt, equity transactions, the cash flow statement, revenue and expense recognition, and leases and pensions. Prerequisite: Admission to GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 5020, BUSN 5021 or GBUS 5000
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BUSN 5021

 Financial Accounting

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to understand financial statements. They analyze the many accounting policy choices available to companies, and the consequences of these choices for users. Topics include recording basic financial transactions, financial statement preparation, adjusting entries, accounting for receivables and inventories, depreciation and sale of capital assets, bonds and long-term debt, equity transactions, the cash flow statement, revenue and expense recognition, and leases and pensions. Prerequisite: Admission to the GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 5020, BUSN 5021, GBUS 5000-Financial Reporting and Analysis.
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BUSN 5030

 Management Accounting (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students explore the three functions managers must perform within their organizations: planning operations, controlling activities and making decisions. To perform these functions efficiently, managers must collect and interpret appropriate information based on the firm ́s long-term strategy and annual objectives. Topics include an introduction to management accounting; costs and cost behaviours; job or project costing; activity-based costing; cost behaviour and the contribution margin; cost, volume, profit analysis; budgeting; budget variances and performance evaluation; performance measures and the balance scorecard; and short-term decision analysis. Prerequisite: BUSN 5020 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 5030, BUSN 5031 or GBUS 5030
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BUSN 5031

 Management Accounting

3 credits
Students explore the three functions managers must perform within their organizations: planning operations, controlling activities and making decisions. To perform these functions efficiently, managers must collect and interpret appropriate information based on the firm´s long-term strategy and annual objectives. Topics include an introduction to management accounting; costs and cost behaviours; job or project costing; activity-based costing; cost behaviour and the contribution margin; cost, volume, profit analysis; budgeting; budget variances and performance evaluation; performance measures and the balance scorecard; and short-term decision analysis. Prerequisite: BUSN 5021 Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 5030, BUSN 5031, GBUS 5030-Financial Planning and Control Systems.
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BUSN 5040

 Global Economics (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students develop an understanding of the theoretical framework within which the performance of an economy can be analyzed. Topics include overview of macroeconomics; measurement of income, prices and unemployment; national income determination; money, banks and central bank; the IS-LM model; financial market and economic instability; government budget, debt, and limitations of fiscal policy; international trade, exchange rate and macroeconomic policy; aggregate demand and aggregate supply; inflation; stabilization policies and the theory of economic growth. Prerequisite: Admission to GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 5040, BUSN 5041 or GBUS 5050
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BUSN 5041

 Global Economics

3 credits
Students develop an understanding of the theoretical framework within which the performance of an economy can be analyzed. Topics include an overview of macroeconomics; measurement of income, prices, and unemployment; national income determination; money, banks, and central bank; the IS-LM model; financial market and economic instability; government budget, debt, and limitations of fiscal policy; international trade, exchange rate, and macroeconomic policy; aggregate demand and aggregate supply; inflation; stabilization policies; and the theory of economic growth. Prerequisite: Admission to the GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 5040, BUSN 5041, GBUS 5050-Global Economics.
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BUSN 5050

 Marketing Management (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students examine the key principles and concepts of marketing in a variety of contexts including nonprofit, international, services, and environmental issues. Topics include marketing strategy, marketing research, customer relationship management, market segmentation, branding, pricing strategies, channels of distribution, integrated marketing communications, and international marketing. Prerequisite: Admission to GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 5050, BUSN 5051 or GBUS 5100
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BUSN 5051

 Marketing Management

3 credits
Students examine the key principles and concepts of marketing, and are introduced to marketing in a variety of contexts including not-for-profit, international, services, and environmental issues. Topics covered include marketing strategy, marketing research, customer relationship management, market segmentation, branding, products and services, pricing strategies, channels of distribution, integrated marketing communications, and international marketing. Prerequisite: Admission to GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 5050, BUSN 5051, GBUS 5100-Marketing Management.
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BUSN 5060

 Human Resource Management (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and skills required to effectively design and manage a human resource management system. Human resource management systems that are aligned with strategic objectives and more capable of attracting, deploying, developing and retaining human capital are key contributors to organizational competitiveness and success. Topics include the strategic role of human resource management; the legal environment; designing and analyzing jobs; planning and recruitment; selection; orientation and training; performance appraisal; compensation; employee benefits and services; occupational health and safety; effective employee relations; and labour relations, collective bargaining, and contract administration. Prerequisite: Admission to GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 5060, BUSN 5061 or GBUS 5140
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BUSN 5061

 Human Resource Management

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and skills required to effectively design and manage a human resource management system. Human resource management systems that are aligned with strategic objectives and capable of attracting, deploying, developing, and retaining human capital are key contributors to organizational competitiveness and success. Topics include the strategic role of human resource management; the legal environment; designing and analyzing jobs; planning and recruitment; selection; orientation and training; performance appraisal; compensation; employee benefits and services; occupational health and safety; effective employee relations; and labour relations, collective bargaining, and contract administration. Prerequisite: Admission to GDBA or MBA or approval of degree committee. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 5060, BUSN 5061, GBUS 5140-Human Resource Management.
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BUSN 6010

 Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students become more effective decision makers by examining the meaning and role of ethics in the business environment, and the social responsibility of business organizations. Topics include an introduction business ethics; framing business ethics in terms of corporate social responsibility, stakeholders and citizenship; evaluating business ethics using normative ethical theories; making decisions in business ethics using descriptive ethical theories; tools and techniques of business ethics management; business ethics and shareholders, employees, consumers, suppliers, competitors, civil society, government and regulation; the future of business ethics. Prerequisite: Admission to MBA or approval of degree committee Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6010, BUSN 6011 or GBUS 5150
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BUSN 6011

 Business Ethics & Corporate Social Responsibility

3 credits
Students become more effective decision makers by examining the meaning and role of ethics in the business environment, and the social responsibility of business organizations. Topics include the relationship between business and society; identifying stakeholders and issues; the theoretical basis of business ethics; business ethics in management and leadership; the concept of corporate social responsibility; corporate social responsibility in practice; regulating business; ownership and governance of the corporation; environmental and business responsibilities; globalization and business responsibilities; and ethics, responsibilities, and strategy. Prerequisite: Admission to MBA or approval of degree committee. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6010, BUSN 6011, GBUS 5150-Leadership and Ethics.
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BUSN 6020

 Corporate Finance (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students develop the knowledge and skills required to effectively manage a firm's operating and fixed assets, and to fund those assets with an optimal mix of short-term and long-term debt and equity financing. Topics include time value of money; goals of the firm, corporate governance and executive compensation; financial statement analysis; quality of earnings; maturity matching; short-term financial planning; capital budgeting; risk and return and stock valuation; bond valuation and interest rates; cost of capital; capital structure; and dividend policy. Prerequisites: BUSN 5010 AND BUSN 5030 AND BUSN 5040 or equivalent Exclusion: Students cannot receive credit for more than one of BUSN 6020, BUSN 6021 or GBUS 5110
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BUSN 6021

 Corporate Finance

3 credits
Students develop the knowledge and skills required to effectively manage a firm's operating and fixed assets, and to fund those assets with an optimal mix of short-term and long-term debt and equity financing. Topics include time value of money; goals of the firm, corporate governance and executive compensation; financial statement analysis; quality of earnings; maturity matching; short-term financial planning; capital budgeting; risk and return and stock valuation; bond valuation and interest rates; cost of capital; capital structure; and dividend policy. Prerequisites: BUSN 5011 or equivalent, BUSN 5031 or equivalent, BUSN 5041 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6020, BUSN 6021, GBUS 5110-Corporate Finance.
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BUSN 6030

 International Business (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students are introduced to the basic concepts of international business and competition from a manager's perspective. Topics include country differences in political economy, the cultural environment, ethics in international business, international trade theories, the political economy of international trade, foreign direct investment, regional economic integration, the foreign exchange market, the global monetary system, global strategy, global marketing and research and development, and global human resource management. Prerequisite: BUSN 5040 and BUSN 5050 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6030, BUSN 6031 or GBUS 5120
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BUSN 6031

 International Business

3 credits
Students are introduced to the basic concepts of international business and competition from a manager's perspective. Topics include country differences in political economy, the cultural environment, ethics in international business, international trade theories, the political economy of international trade, foreign direct investment, regional economic integration, the foreign exchange market, the global monetary system, global strategy, global marketing and research and development, and global human resource management. Prerequisite: BUSN 5041 or equivalent, BUSN 5051 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6030, BUSN 6031, GBUS 5120-International Business.
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BUSN 6040

 Leadership and Organizational Development (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students adopt a systematic understanding of the characteristics of a successful leader and what is required by leaders to attune and align organizations to the ever-changing global business environment. Topics include new realities as a force for change; the prime task of leadership - identifying new realties; critical systems thinking; philosophies, theories, and styles of leadership; the systematic leadership approach; authority, obedience, and power; authority, power, leadership, and group dynamics; organizational behavior, group dynamics, and change; the shadow side of leadership; leadership and ethics; systematic leadership and strategy; and 'the leader in you'. Prerequisite: BUSN 5060 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6040, BUSN 6041 of GBUS 5150
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BUSN 6041

 Leadership and Organizational Development

3 credits
Students adopt a systematic understanding of the characteristics of a successful leader and what is required by leaders to attune and align organizations to the ever-changing global business environment. Topics include new realities as a force for change; the prime task of leadership – identifying new realties; critical systems thinking; philosophies, theories, and styles of leadership; the systematic leadership approach; authority, obedience, and power; authority, power, leadership, and group dynamics; organizational behavior, group dynamics, and change; the shadow side of leadership; leadership and ethics; systematic leadership and strategy; and 'the leader in you'. Prerequisite: BUSN 5061 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6040, BUSN 6041, GBUS 5150-Leadership and Ethics.
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BUSN 6050

 Supply Chain Management (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and basic skills to effectively design a supply chain for an organization. Topics include an introduction to supply chain, the importance of information technology, supply chain slacks, demand management, supply management, inventory management, production management, transportation management, location analysis, sourcing decisions, supply chain strategy, and an overview of special types of supply chains such as green and humanitarian aid supply chains. Prerequisite: BUSN 5010 and BUSN 5030 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6050, BUSN 6051 or GBUS 5130
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BUSN 6051

 Supply Chain Management

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and basic skills to effectively design a supply chain for an organization. Topics include an introduction to supply chain, the importance of information technology, supply chain slacks, demand management, supply management, inventory management, production management, transportation management, location analysis, sourcing decisions, supply chain strategy, and an overview of special types of supply chains such as green and humanitarian aid supply chains. Prerequisite: BUSN 5011 or equivalent, BUSN 5031 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6050, BUSN 6051, GBUS 5130-Operations Management.
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BUSN 6060

 Strategic Management Information Systems (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students examine the ability of information technology to enhance the quality and efficiency of decision making by improving the various elements of the decision-making process and making data collection more cost effective. They also discover what every manager needs to know to leverage information systems for the design and implementation of business models in an organization. Topics include: introduction to information systems, organizational strategy and competitive advantage; overview of hardware and software; managing data, information and knowledge; computer networks; information systems in support of business operations; decision support systems and business intelligence; information systems for strategic advantage enterprise resource planning; World Wide Web, E-commerce and mobile commerce; management information systems development and acquisition; cybercrime, information security and controls; and ethics and privacy. Prerequisite: Admission to MBA or approval of degree committee Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6060, BUSN 6061 or GBUS 5300
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BUSN 6061

 Strategic Management Information Systems

3 credits
Students examine the ability of information technology to enhance the quality and efficiency of decision making by improving the various elements of the decision-making process and making data collection more cost effective. They also discover what every manager needs to know to leverage information systems for the design and implementation of business models in an organization. Topics include: introduction to information systems, organizational strategy and competitive advantage; overview of hardware and software; managing data, information and knowledge; computer networks; information systems in support of business operations; decision support systems and business intelligence; information systems for strategic advantage enterprise resource planning; World Wide Web, E-commerce and mobile commerce; management information systems development and acquisition; cybercrime, information security and controls; and ethics and privacy. Prerequisite: Admission to MBA or approval of degree committee. Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6060, BUSN 6061, GBUS 5300-Strategic Management Information Systems.
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BUSN 6070

 Project Management and Consulting Methods (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students explore the concepts and practical techniques to apply consulting methods in their work and to participate in, or manage, complex projects. Topics include the five stages of the consulting process (entry and contracting, discovery and dialogue, analysis and the decision to act, engagement and implementation, and closing); analysis and presentation techniques; and an examination of the five major project process groups (project initiation, planning, execution, controlling, and closing). Prerequisite: BUSN 6040 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6070, BUSN 6071 or GBUS 5210
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BUSN 6071

 Project Management and Consulting Methods

3 credits
Students explore the concepts and practical techniques to apply consulting methods in their work and to participate in or manage complex projects. The topics include the five stages of the consulting process which include entry and contracting, discovery and dialogue, analysis and the decision to act, engagement and implementation and closing; analysis and presentation techniques; and examination of the five major project process groups which include project initiation, planning, execution, controlling and closing. Prerequisite: BUSN 6041 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6070, BUSN 6071, GBUS 5210-Research and Consulting Methods.
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BUSN 6080

 Strategic Management (4,0,0)

3 credits
Students examine the role of senior management in developing and implementing corporate strategy in a global context. They learn to analyze the firm's external and internal environment to identify and create competitive advantage, as well as to formulate, implement, and evaluate cross-functional decisions that directly affect the ability of an organization to achieve its stated objectives. Topics include an introduction to strategic management, measures of firm performance, analysis of the external and internal environments, business-level and corporate-level strategy, acquisition and restructuring strategies, international strategies, corporate governance, organizational structures and controls, strategic leadership, and corporate social responsibility and ethics. Prerequisite: BUSN 6010, BUSN 6020, BUSN 6030, BUSN 6040 and BUSN 6050 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6080, BUSN 6081 or GBUS 5200
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BUSN 6081

 Strategic Management

3 credits
Students examine the role of senior management in developing and implementing corporate strategy in a global context. They learn to analyze the firm's external and internal environment to identify and create competitive advantage as well as to formulate, implement and evaluate cross-functional decisions that directly affect the ability of an organization to achieve its stated objectives. Topics include an introduction to strategic management, measures of firm performance, analysis of the external environment, analysis of the internal environment, business-level strategy, corporate-level strategy, acquisition and restructuring strategies, international strategies, corporate governance, organizational structures and controls, strategic leadership, and corporate social responsibility and ethics. Prerequisite: BUSN 6011 or equivalent, BUSN 6021 or equivalent, BUSN 6031 or equivalent, BUSN 6041 or equivalent, BUSN 6051 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6080, BUSN 6081, GBUS 5200-Strategic Management.
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BUSN 6150

 Advanced Marketing Management (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and skills required to develop, implement, and control successful marketing strategies. Topics include the art of case analysis; consumer behavior; marketing research and competitive analysis; marketing segmentation and position; market entry and pricing; retail selling, private labels, and channels of distribution; marketing communications; Internet marketing; corporate social responsibility and nonprofit marketing; sales management; and international marketing. Prerequisite: BUSN 5050 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6150, BUSN 6151 or GBUS 5600
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BUSN 6151

 Advanced Marketing Management

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and skills required to develop, implement, and control successful marketing strategies. Topics include the art of case analysis; consumer behavior; marketing research and competitive analysis; marketing segmentation and position; market entry and pricing; retail selling, private labels, and channels of distribution; marketing communications; Internet marketing; corporate social responsibility and nonprofit marketing; sales management; and international marketing. Prerequisite: BUSN 5051 Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6150, BUSN 6151, GBUS 5600-Advanced Marketing Management.
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BUSN 6210

 Advanced Corporate Finance (3,0,0)

3 credits
Building on BUSN 6020: Corporate Finance, students continue to develop their knowledge and skills in corporate finance. Topics include long-term financial planning; sources of long-term financing; working capital management; sources of short-term financing; international corporate finance; risk management; business valuation; mergers and acquisitions; corporate restructuring; bankruptcy, reorganization, and liquidation; and economic value added. Prerequisite: BUSN 6020 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for BUSN 6210, BUSN 6211 or GBUS 5400
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BUSN 6211

 Advanced Corporate Finance

3 credits
Building on BUSN 6020: Corporate Finance, students continue to develop their knowledge and skills in corporate finance. Topics include long-term financial planning; sources of long-term financing; working capital management; sources of short-term financing; international corporate finance; risk management; business valuation; mergers and acquisitions; corporate restructuring; bankruptcy, reorganization, and liquidation; and Economic Value Added. Prerequisite: BUSN 6021 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6210, BUSN 6211, GBUS 5400-Advanced Corporate Finance.
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BUSN 6250

 Decision Analysis and Modelling (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students learn to integrate personal judgment and intuition in realistic business situations with the most widely applicable methodologies of decision and risk analysis, probability and statistics, competitive analysis, and management science. Topics include an introduction to decision analysis and modelling; spreadsheet engineering and error reduction; framing decision analysis problems; framework for analyzing risk; data analysis; resource allocation with optimization models; multi-period deterministic models; multi-factor deterministic models; regression modelling; strategic interactive decisions; and interpreting models, data, and decisions. Prerequisite: BUSN 5010 and BUSN 5030 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6250 or BUSN 6251
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BUSN 6251

 Decision Analysis and Modeling

3 credits
Students learn to integrate personal judgment and intuition in realistic business situations with the most widely applicable methodologies of decision and risk analysis, probability and statistics, competitive analysis, and management science. Topics include an introduction to decision analysis and modelling; spreadsheet engineering and error reduction; framing decision analysis problems; framework for analyzing risk; data analysis; resource allocation with optimization models; multi-period deterministic models; multi-factor deterministic models; regression modelling; strategic interactive decisions; and interpreting models, data, and decisions. Prerequisite: BUSN 5011 or equivalent, BUSN 5031 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6250, BUSN 6251.
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BUSN 6310

 Innovation and Entrepreneurship (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and skills required to manage the development of innovations, to recognize and evaluate potential opportunities to monetize these innovations, to plan specific and detailed methods to exploit opportunities, and to acquire the resources necessary to implement plans. Topics include entrepreneurial thinking, innovation management, opportunity spotting and evaluation, industry and market research, business strategy, business models and business plans, financial forecasting and entrepreneurial finance, pitching to resource providers and negotiating deals, and launching new ventures. Prerequisite: BUSN 6020 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6310, BUSN 6311 or GBUS 5210
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BUSN 6311

 Innovation and Entrepreneurship

3 credits
Students acquire the knowledge and skills needed to manage the development of innovations, to recognize and evaluate potential opportunities to monetize these innovations, to plan specific and detailed methods to exploit these opportunities, and to acquire the resources necessary to implement these plans. Topics include entrepreneurial thinking; innovation management; opportunity spotting and evaluation; industry and market research; business strategy; business models and business plans; financial forecasting and entrepreneurial finance; pitching to resource providers and negotiating deals; and launching new ventures. Prerequisite: BUSN 6021 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6310, BUSN 6311, GBUS 5210-Business Research and Consulting Methods.
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BUSN 6910

 Selected Topics in Business Administration (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students will focus on specific topics within the field of business administration not covered by regularly scheduled, required courses in the program. Course content will vary depending on the interests of faculty and students. Prerequisite: Approval of degree committee
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BUSN 6920

 Directed Studies in Business Administration (3,0,0) or (3,0,0)(3,0,0)

6 credits
Students will work individually or in a small group to engage in independent study, research, or practice relating to a topic in business administration, under faculty supervision. Students work independently, meeting with the supervisor on a regular basis. Prerequisite: Approval of degree committee
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BUSN 6950

 Research Methods, Preparation, and Presentation (3,0,0)

3 credits
Students receive an overview of the scientific method, research preparation, and the styles of communication used to disseminate research at the graduate level. Topics include the role of business research, theory and the business research process, organization structure and ethical issues, defining a research problem, qualitative research tools, survey research, observation methods and experimental research, measurement and scaling concepts, sampling and sample size, working with data, quantitative statistical analysis, and writing a research report. Prerequisite: BUSN 5010 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6950 or BUSN 6951
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BUSN 6951

 Research Methods, Preparation, and Presentation

3 credits
Students receive an overview of the scientific method, research preparation, and the styles of communication used to disseminate research at the graduate level. Topics include the role of business research, theory and the business research process, organization structure and ethical issues, defining a research problem, qualitative research tools, survey research, observation methods and experimental research, measurement and scaling concepts, sampling and sample size, working with data, quantitative statistical analysis, and writing a research report. Prerequisite: BUSN 5011 or equivalent Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of BUSN 6950, BUSN 6951, GBUS 5210-Business Research and Consulting Methods.
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BUSN 6960

 Graduate Thesis

12 credits
Students in the Graduate Thesis Option in the Master of Business Administration degree program prepare and defend a thesis in accordance with the policies established by the Research, Innovation, and Graduate Studies Office. The thesis is completed under the supervision of a faculty member and a thesis supervisory committee and evaluated by a thesis defence/examining committee. Prerequisite: BUSN 6950 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6960 or BUSN 6961
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BUSN 6970

 Graduate Project

9 credits
Students in the Graduate Project Option in the Master of Business Administration degree program prepare and defend a report that addresses a particular management issue or problem. The report is completed under the direction of a faculty member and evaluated by a project defence committee. Prerequisite: BUSN 6950 or equivalent Note: Students may only receive credit for one of BUSN 6970 or BUSN 6971
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