Thompson Rivers University
Thompson Rivers University
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On-Campus

There are a number of ways to register for on-campus courses at TRU which are determined by your program of study.

Open Learning

We offer 590 courses by distance learning. These courses are offered in several formats, including print-based, web-based and online.


Continuing Studies

Community U provides individuals and organizations with formal and non-formal opportunities to pursue personal and professional goals life-long.

Trades and Technology

Apprenticeship, foundation and continuing studies courses are offered in construction, mechanical trades, professional driving and more.

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Courses - G
Title Name Delivery
GASF 1000

 Domestic/Commercial Gasfitter (Class B) Apprentice Level 1


Students are introduced to theory and gain hands-on lab experience in the following topics: Safe work practices, proper use of tools and equipment, organizing work and to prepare and assemble plumbing components.

Campus
GASF 2000

 Domestic/Commercial Gasfitter (Class B) Apprentice Level 2


Students are introduced to theory and gain hands-on lab experience in the following topics: organizing work, installing and servicing fuel systems, installing venting and air supplies, installing and servicing gas equipment and installing and servicing controls and safeguards.

Campus
GASF 3000

 Gasfitter (Class A)


This course prepares students to install, test, maintain and repair propane/natural gas lines, appliances, equipment and accessories in residential and commercial premises. The holder of a Gasfitter - (Class A) is involved in the installation or alteration of any gas system 400,000 BTU's and greater, except vehicle fuel systems under the appropriate permit.

Campus
GEOG 1000

 Planet Earth - An Introduction to Earth System Science (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This science laboratory course introduces students to the study of earth system science by examining the interactions among the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere as well as the impact that human activity has on interactions. Topics include plate tectonics; earthquakes and tsunamis; volcanos; the rock cycle; mass wasting - including landslides; weathering; and soils. Glaciers; permafrost; and Karst landscapes, including caves, are also explored. In addition, students will be introduced to hydrology - the study of the occurrence, distribution and movement of water at or near the surface of the earth. Laboratory instruction will include landform identification using topographic maps; co-ordinate systems (latitude and longitude, UTM); map scale; basic surveying - including the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS); and graphing. Students will also be exposed to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies and will be introduced to how they assist us in our understanding of Planet Earth. Required Lab: GEOG 1000L

Campus
GEOG 1010

 People, Places and Landscapes: Introducing Human Geography (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This course introduces and explores human geography concepts, issues, and processes that influence the dynamic connections among people, places and environments at different spatial scales. A wide range of themes related to the study of human geography and environmental studies is covered, including: population dynamics; culture and identity; economic patterns and uneven development; agriculture and food production; cities and urbanization; geopolitics; globalization; and the challenges of environmentally sustainable development.

Campus
GEOG 1100

 Introduction to Environmental Studies and Sustainability (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
An introduction to the environment, emphasizing a geographical approach. Topics of study include environmental worldviews, history of the environment movement, ecosystems, energy principles, human population dynamics, patterns of resource use, environmental issues and environmental ethics. Required Seminar: GEOG 1100S

Campus
GEOG 1110

 World Regional Geography (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This course applies the core concepts of geography to interpret both the variety and distinctiveness of places and regions and to their relationships, connections, and integration. It introduces students to the academic discipline of geography as well as its professional applications by explaining geographic approaches to social issues. Students obtain an appreciation for geographic thinking, and greater understanding of the complex modern world.

Campus
GEOG 1191

 Introduction to Human Geography I: People and the Environment

Credits: 3
This course traces the development of present-day attitudes concerning the complex interrelation-ship between people and the environment. It looks at both "determinist" and "possibilist" views and focuses on such subjects as resource exploitation, population growth, and the impact of human activities on the environment.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOG 1221

 Introduction to Physical Geography

Credits: 4
This course is an introduction to the basic processes that influence the characteristics and spatial relationships of climate, water cycle and vegetation. Students examine the interactions of solar energy with the Earth's atmosphere and surface, and how atmospheric circulation, precipitation, and weather systems are generated. The cycling of water and other Earth resources within the living zone - the biosphere - are discussed, while students focus on how these cycles, together with the flows of energy, influence the nature and distribution of ecosystems and vegetation. Throughout the course, students look at patterns of human activity that are in response to and have an effect upon environmental processes. Students are then asked to observe and to interpret aspects of their local environment by applying what they have learned.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOG 2020

 Weather, Climate and Global Environmental Change (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
A science laboratory course providing an introduction to the basic principles and processes of meteorology and climatology, the study of weather and climate, respectively. Topics include the composition and structure of the atmosphere, solar radiation and the seasons, energy balances and temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind, atmospheric moisture and cloud development, precipitation, atmospheric circulation, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms and tornadoes, and cyclonic storms. In addition, the course will cover climate classification systems as well as examine the potential causes of past and predicted future global climates. Required Lab: GEOG 2020L

Campus
GEOG 2050

 Introduction to Hydrology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This physical geography course introduces students to hydrologic systems and processes, with an emphasis on: the global hydrologic cycle; hydrologic processes in river basins and related measurement techniques; and elementary hydrologic modelling. The course also examines the potential impact that land use (such as irrigation and urbanization), climate change and politics may have on water resources.

Campus
GEOG 2110

 Geography of the Economic Landscape (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
A geographic view of economic activity is offered in this course. Students examine economic interrelationships, the character of various economic regions, and general spatial organization, on a local, regional and global scale. Required Seminar: GEOG 2110S

Campus
GEOG 2120

 Geography of Urban and Regional Planning (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
An introduction to themes and problems in the field of Urban and Regional Planning, recognizing the increasing interdisciplinary nature of this area of study. The course will study urbanization as an historic and rapidly continuing process; the growth of functional regions and patterns of urban settlement; the dynamics of urban structure and land use; critical planning problems that face both the developed and developing countries. Required Seminar: GEOG 2120S

Campus
GEOG 2211

 Geography of Culture & Landscapes

Credits: 3
This course is an introduction to the cultural geographic study of environment. Students focus on the evolution of landscape, the creation of vernacular regions, and human relationships with nature.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOG 2220

 The Regional Geography of Canada (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
The physical environment and cultural setting of Canada, with a particular focus on human use of the land as determined by its physical nature, is the basis for study of the regional geography of Canada. Emphasis is placed on a study of Canada east of the Rocky Mountains.
Note: GEOG 2230 deals exclusively with the geography of British Columbia Required Seminar: GEOG 2220S

Campus
GEOG 2221

 Regional Geography of Canada

Credits: 3
This course examines the physical, human and economic geography of Canada, from a regional context. Students focus on the many interconnections and relationships between the different regions, between different areas in the regions, and between cities and the rural areas in each region. The distribution patterns of people, cultural groups, and economic activities is explored to illustrate how the regions are part of larger interconnected systems (e.g. Canada, North America, or the Pacific Rim). The course is designed to promote an understanding of the similarities and differences between different areas across Canada, and to develop students' skills in recognizing and analyzing the salient geographical features of those regions and the country as a whole.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOG 2230

 The Regional Geography of British Columbia and Yukon (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Students are introduced to the physical and human geography of British Columbia and examine settlement, resource development and transportation in the Western Cordillera. Topics involving the changing perception of rural British Columbia's landscape and environment are discussed. Required Seminar: GEOG 2230S

Campus
GEOG 2231

 Geography of British Columbia

Credits: 3
This course uses the concepts and methods of regional geography to explore the character of British Columbia, through study of the province's diverse physical and human landscapes. Students focus on geographic patterns and on the interaction of physiography, climate, settlement, resource utilization and economic activity. Students also examine how the province fits into a variety of regional settings: the Pacific Northwest, Canada, North America and the Pacific Rim.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOG 2400

 Geographic Thought (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This introductory geographic theory course provides students with a critical perspective on the nature and development of geographic knowledge and its application in the key subdisciplines of human geography, physical geography, and environmental studies.

Campus
GEOG 2700

 Introduction to Geographical Analysis (3,0,2)

Credits: 3
This computer-based laboratory course introduces students to quantitative methods used for geographic analysis. Students learn the fundamentals of statistical analysis of quantitative and qualitative variables and how to use computer software to perform these analyses. At the end of the course, students understand how to apply quantitative methods to answer questions of geographic interest, and have developed a working knowledge of the most commonly used statistical software in quantitative geography. Required Lab: GEOG 2700L

Campus
GEOG 2750

 Geographic Information Systems (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This course introduces students to geodesy and geoinformatics, topics of study commonly referred to collectively as geomatics. Course topics include: common geographic coordinate systems; common map projections; geospatial data models; setting coordinate systems; loading geospatial data; visualization of geospatial data; manipulating feature and coverage values; and basic geoprocessing procedures. Labs will provide hands-on experience with ArcGIS, the leading GIS software in the industry, towards the goal of developing marketable skills geographic information management. Required Lab: GEOG 2750L
Note: This course is identical to NRSC 2230

Campus
GEOG 3040

 Environmental Climatology and Meteorology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
In this science laboratory course, students examine: the principles and processes of surface and near-surface climatology and meteorology; energy and plant water balance concepts; vertical and horizontal air and vapour movements; microclimates, urban heat islands; the meteorology of atmospheric pollution; and the interrelationships among plants, soils, climates and the biosphere.

Campus
GEOG 3050

 Physical Hydrology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This physical geography course examines the physical processes that determine the quantitative importance and spatiotemporal variability associated with the occurrence, distribution and movement of water on or near the Earth's surface. In addition to a theoretical treatment of the subject, students are introduced to measurement techniques used in the field and to a variety of hydrologic models. Numerical problem solving exercises and field work are important components of the course.

Campus
GEOG 3060

 Groundwater Hydrology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This science course deals with distribution and movement of water in the phreatic zone. Topics covered include properties of aquifers, principles of groundwater flow, groundwater flow to wells, soil moisture and groundwater recharge, regional groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and contamination, groundwater development and management, and groundwater modeling.

Campus
GEOG 3070

 Biogeography (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
This physical geography course examines the physical, biological and chemical processes and constraints that determine contemporary spatial and temporal patterns in life on Earth. In addition, historical patterns are examined with an emphasis placed on the impact plate tectonics and late Tertiary and Quaternary climatic changes had on plant and animal distributions. Other topics discussed in this course include mass extinctions, biodiversity, and the possible biogeographic consequences of anthropogenically induced global climatic change.

Campus
GEOG 3080

 Geomorphology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This course examines geomorphic processes, interrelationship of processes, landforms, materials and time. Practical problems in Science and Applied Science that relate to geomorphic processes are discussed in lectures and methods of investigation and analysis are introduced in the laboratory sessions.
Note: Same as GEOL 3190 Required Lab: GEOG 3080L

Campus
GEOG 3100

 Environment, Resources and Sustainability (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Students discuss concepts of environment and resource, and the role of physical geography in understanding the interaction of humans and the environment. This course also provides an introduction to the management of environment-resource systems.

Campus
GEOG 3200

 Introduction to Cultural Geography (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Students explore the history and methods of cultural geography. Aspects of contemporary land uses, landscapes, and communities are considered in relation to traditions, values, economies, and technology.

Campus
GEOG 3210

 Historical Geography of Urbanization (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Students explore geographic perspectives on the growth of urban regions; pre-industrial cities, urban growth during industrialization, and anti-urban reaction.

Campus
GEOG 3230

 Geographies of Gender (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
This course is an introduction to gender and feminist geography. The course explores gender identities and biases in everyday spaces and activities at a variety of geographic scales, and examines the intersection of gender, race, and class to illustrate the complexity of social categories.

Campus
GEOG 3270

 Historical Geography of Canada 1: Canada Before 1850 (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
This course is a study of Canada from the beginning of European contact to the mid-19th century, with an emphasis on the changing geographical patterns of settlement, economy, and culture. Required Seminar: GEOG 3270S

Campus
GEOG 3280

 Historical Geography of Canada 2: Canada After 1850 (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
This course is a study of the spread of settlement, the growth of towns, and the development of economic and cultural regions in Canada - a Nation increasingly influenced by industrialization. Required Seminar: GEOG 3280S

Campus
GEOG 3500

 Introduction to Urban Geography (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Students explore city systems and theories of urban location; internal spatial structure of the city; commercial and industrial location; social areas; mobility patterns; neighbourhood and land use change; urban trends, land use problems; and public policy.

Campus
GEOG 3510

 Rural Geography (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This course focuses on themes in rural geography, such as land use issues, small settlements and society, agriculture, tourism and other industries, rural administration, service provision, and the effects of socio-economic processes including urbanization and globalization.

Campus
GEOG 3550

 Geography of the Rural-Urban Fringe (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This human-geography course examines landscape change and management at the edge of cities. Examples will be taken from large and small cities in Canada and around the world.

Campus
GEOG 3570

 Introduction to Social and Behavioural Geography (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Students study the development of social and behavioural geography, focussing on topics such as environmental perception and microgeography, and approaching these topics from institutional and interactionist perspectives.

Campus
GEOG 3610

 Themes in Economic Geography (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
History and methods of economic geography. Location of resource industries, manufacturing, and service activities with an emphasis on British Columbia in its North American world setting.

Campus
GEOG 3630

 The Geography of Resource Industries (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
This course offers a geographical analysis of selected resource industries of importance to Canada. Each year a selection is made from the agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, energy, and recreation sectors, and explored within international and national contexts.

Campus
GEOG 3650

 Geography of Consumption (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This course examines consumption as a cultural and economic practice, how it has formed landscapes, and its impact on our growing understanding of ecosystems and social systems. It examines spatial patterns of purchasing and consuming goods and services, changing ideas about the landscape as a good and a service, and the ethical and practical questions raised by the social and environmental impact of increased consumption.

Campus
GEOG 3700

 Field Course in Geography (0,3,0)

Credits: 3
The topic(s) and focus for this course is announced by the Department a year in advance.

Campus
GEOG 3740

 Remote Sensing of the Environment (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
Students in physical, social, and environmental sciences are introduced to remote sensors, sensing platforms, measurement acquisition, and spatial analysis of remote sensing measurements, particularly multi-spectral imagery.

Campus
GEOG 3750

 Applying Geographic Information Systems (2,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This computer-based laboratory course addresses the creation, management, and application of geo-data. The focus of the course is on the utility of Geographic Information Systems in problem solving and decision-making in real world settings. Labs assist in developing marketable skills in analytical procedures and cartographic output.

Campus
GEOG 3770

 GIS for Water Resources Systems Analysis (2,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
Recent advances in environmental sensing technologies have increased the amount of data available to support water resources analyses. This explosion in available data necessitates the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to integrate, preprocess, and analyze these datasets. This course will explore ArcGIS-based tools for performing water resources analyses, including Web-services for data acquisition; watershed delineation; river network identification; infiltration modeling; analysis of water budgets; runoff modeling; and channel routing. At the end of the course, the students will have a firm grounding in the application of GIS for modeling of water resources systems.

Campus
GEOG 3900

 ***Geography of Selected Regions (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
This course offers a geographical analysis of selected regions not regularly included in the Department's offerings in regional geography (such as Western Europe, Oceania and East Asia). Required Seminar: GEOG 3900S

Campus
GEOG 3990

 ***Special Topics in Geography

Credits: 3
This is a special topics course in geography. The subject matter varies from semester to semester depending upon the interest of faculty and students. Vectoring is determined as per policy ED-8-0.

Campus
GEOG 3991

 Global Climate Change and Regional Impacts

Credits: 3
This seminar course involves in-depth analysis in environmental studies, including receptive but critical examination of issues from various perspectives. Students study how natural processes and human activity alter the composition of the ocean and atmosphere and trigger climate change at different temporal and spatial scales, globally and regionally. As a basis for their critical thinking and seminar discussion, students develop their knowledge of: systems and energy flow, and atmospheric and ocean circulation; methodologies, records, and indicators of climate change; and the consequences of human activity within the context of natural climate change and the environment's capacity to absorb anthropogenic impacts.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOG 4050

 Fluvial Geomorphology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
Moving water on the Earth's surface results in the creation of distinct geomorphic landscapes. This physical geography course examines the principles of sediment entrainment, transport and deposition, fluvial flow, drainage basin form and processes, and an analysis of fluvial landforms. Examples are drawn from the Kamloops area, as well as from other regions in British Columbia, Canada, and the world.

Campus
GEOG 4060

 Advances in Hydrology (0,3,0)

Credits: 3
This seminar course explores key advances in hydrological science with an emphasis on forest hydrology. The historical development of our current understanding of the physical processes involved in the movement and storage of water in vegetated environments is covered as are future research directions. In addition to physical processes, where appropriate, advances in measurement and modeling methodologies are also examined. Key topics covered include advances in our understanding of rainfall, snow, throughfall and stemflow, evaporation and transpiration, infiltration, soil moisture redistribution, and hillslope hydrology processes. Additionally, the hydrologic impacts of forest harvesting, wildfire, insect infestations, and global climatic change will also be examined.

Campus
GEOG 4100

 Sustainable Rural Systems (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This course marries the subject areas of rural geography and sustainability in case study analyses of a country - for example, Japan, Canada, China, or Mexico - or a global region - for example, the Asia-Pacific or Africa - depending upon instructor expertise. It examines the transformation of rural areas owing to urbanization, globalization and other social forces. The course examines subsequent problems, such as rural depopulation and the policies to keep these areas socially, economically, and ecologically sustainable.

Campus
GEOG 4230

 Attitudes Toward the Environment (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Students examine the cultural attitudes that have influenced land use and environmental change in the past and present.

Campus
GEOG 4240

 Geography of Tourism (2,1,0) or (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
Students examine the geographical topics in tourism, including: tourism as a global and local phenomenon; historical changes in leisure and development of tourism in western, industrializing economies; tourism in the Canadian economy, past and present; current relationships between tourism; and cultural values and economic systems.

Campus
GEOG 4480

 ***Directed Studies in Geography

Credits: 3
This course is designed to allow fourth year students to undertake an investigation on a specific chosen topic, agreed upon by the faculty member and the student.

Campus
GEOG 4500

 Urban Analysis (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
This course offers a geographical analysis of selected problems caused by the internal structure of cities and urban systems.

Campus
GEOG 4740

 Spatiotemporal Analysis (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
A central theme in geography is the study of spatial and temporal variations of the phenomena which make up natural and human-dominated environments. This course delves into statistical methods for analyzing phenomena that are correlated in space and/or time. Practial applications of theoretical concepts will be explored through the use of R, a statistical computing software. Topics include the characterization of temporal processes; basic time series models (AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA); characterization of spatial processes; geostatics (Kriging and conditional simulation); spatial point processes; visualization of spatiotemporal data; spatiotemporal covariance functions; and spatiotemporal Kriging. At the end of the course, the students will have a firm grounding in the theory of spatiotemporal statistics and understand how to apply these methods to answer questions of geographic interest.

Campus
GEOG 4750

 Advances in Geomatics (0,3,0)

Credits: 3
As a technology-based discipline, the field of geomatics is rapidly changing in response to technological advancements in remote sensing, computing hardware, wireless communication, programmatic abstractions, and spatiotemporal models. Through the reading of recently published articles and the replication of key results, this fourth year seminar class explores recent advances in the state-of-the-science of geomatics. Key topics include real-time access to environmental observations; free-and-open-source GIS; GIS-based decision support systems; Web-enablement; environmental data fusion; decentralized and cloud-based tools for geomatics.

Campus
GEOG 4800

 Environmental Issues and Policies (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Using a geographical analysis of environmental issues and policies, this course relates land use, hazards and resource allocation to changing demand, technology, institutions, policies, and social values. An emphasis is placed on issues and policies relevant to small cities and adjacent rural areas.

Campus
GEOG 4810

 Geography of Small Cities (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
This course examines the economic, social, cultural, and environmental qualities of small cities and the issues and forces that affect them. Case studies are drawn from the local scene and from across North America.

Campus
GEOG 4820

 Urban Biophysical Environments (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
Cities represent areas where biophysical processes are often markedly distinct from their rural counterparts. This physical geography course examines the climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, and biogeography of cities, and the impact cities have on biophysical processes at regional and global scales. Specific topics include: the urban heat island effect; urban hydrology; building architecture and wind; atmospheric contamination; urban forestry; and the urban area as an ecosystem. Students study the biophysical processes of environmental examples drawn from Kamloops and comparative communities.

Campus
GEOG 4840

 Postcolonial Geographies (2,1,0)

Credits: 3
Students analyze the role of geographical ideas and practices in the establishment, maintenance, overthrow, and persistence of colonial relationships.

Campus
GEOG 4850

 Geography of First Nations Issues in British Columbia (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This course offers an examination of the issues involved in the creation of new relationships that are evolving and inclusive of First Nations concerns in British Columbia. Students explore the past relationships between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples of the province, the legal principles and precedents in force, the present situation of ongoing negotiations, and an analysis of future possibilities. Land and resource agreements and disagreements are the focus of this course, as well as the mechanisms available for compromise and resolution.

Campus
GEOG 4990

 ***Special Topics in Geography and Environmental Studies

Credits: 3
This is a special topics course in geography. The subject matter varies from semester to semester depending upon the interest of the faculty and students. Vectoring is determined as per policy ED-8-0.

Campus
GEOL 1011

 Introduction to Geoscience

Credits: 3
In this non-lab course, students examine the nature of the Earth and its development through time. Topics include the Earth's origins and composition, volcanoes, earthquakes, and the development of the landscape over time by such processes as weathering, mass wasting, rivers, glaciers, wind, and waves.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOL 1031

 Dinosaur Earth

Credits: 3
Students explore dinosaurs and their domination of terrestrial habitats for about 160 million years during the Mesozoic era. The course begins by examining global plate tectonics and climate with specific reference to the Mesozoic. Students examine the evolution of the dinosaurs from the early land-dwelling vertebrates, their diversification, and their extinction 65 million years ago. The manner in which the ancestors of modern animals filled the habitats previously occupied by dinosaurs is also examined. This course is intended to meet the science requirements of non-science programs, and to be of interest to students who have taken other courses in earth and environmental sciences.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOL 1110

 Introduction to Physical Geology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This is a science laboratory course directed towards anyone who has an interest in geology. The course involves a survey of all major topics of physical geology, including mineralogy, petrology, crystal chemistry, time, surface processes, volcanic activity, rock deformation and mountain building, and plate tectonics. Field excursions supplement the lecture and laboratory material. Required Lab: GEOL 1110L

Campus
GEOL 1111

 Introduction to Earth Science

Credits: 4
This lab course studies the nature of the Earth and its development through time. Students examine the Earth's origins and composition, in addition to volcanoes, earthquakes, and the development of the landscape over time by such processes as weathering, mass wasting, rivers, glaciers, wind, and waves. The lab component of the course focuses on the identification and understanding of minerals and rocks, and on the interpretation of geological features from topographic maps.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOL 2050

 Geological Time (3,0,3)(L)

Credits: 3
This course explores the evolution of Earth, the continents, oceans, atmosphere, climate, and biosphere over geologic time. Students will learn about the scientific principles, evidence, techniques and technologies for addressing fundamental inquires such as how oxygen was added to the atmosphere, how and why climates have changed throughout time and the significance to current climate change; how water and salts were added to the oceans, and causes of sea level change; the formation and erosion of mountains; causes and effects of glaciations; theories for the origin of life, and the timing and causes of major extinctions; and the recent importance of humans as geologic agents.

Campus
GEOL 2051

 Geologic Time

Credits: 3
This Geology course studies the geologic history of the earth. Concepts covered include: measurement of geologic time, stratigraphic principles, radiometric decay, and elementary paleontology. The laboratory portion overs methods utilized in geological mapping and fossil identification. This course is a natural continuation of a first semester Geology course that includes a laboratory.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOL 2060

 Introduction to Mineral Deposits, Minerals (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This course explores the formation, styles and types of mineral deposits, occurrences, exploration methods, mineral resources and reserves, types of mines, and prospecting methods. Topics include considerations of a social license to mine; social, economic, and environmental sustainability issues and solutions; environmental assessment, mine closure and reclamation. Case studies will be discussed.

Campus
GEOL 2070

 Geologic Hazards and Forensic Geology (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
In this course students will explore how the geosciences contribute to criminal and military investigations, and to the understanding, prediction and mitigation of geologic hazards. This course is an opportunity to explore the magnitude, frequency, causes and impacts of geologic hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunami, landslides, and meteor impact. The course also covers prediction, monitoring, assessment and causes of damage; the role of the geosciences in national security, and geological methods used in criminal investigations.

Campus
GEOL 2071

 Geologic Hazards and Forensic Geology

Credits: 3
Students explore how the geosciences contribute to criminal and military investigations, and to the understanding, prediction, and mitigation of geologic hazards. Students investigate the magnitude, frequency, causes, and impacts of geologic hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, and meteor impacts. Students develop skills for the prediction, monitoring, assessment, and determination of causes of damage. Students examine the role of geosciences for national security and geological methods used in criminal investigations.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOL 2100

 Mineralogy: Properties, Identification, Occurrences and Uses (3,0,3)(L)

Credits: 3
The systematic study of minerals, their occurrences, and uses. Topics include identification of mineral properties in hand sample, mineral classification, description, physical and chemical properties, and crystallography. These topics are presented within the context of the processes of mineral formation, occurrences and importance to society.

Campus
GEOL 2150

 Introductory Petrology (2,0,3)(L)

Credits: 3
This course is an examination of the origin, composition, occurrence, and structure of all three rock groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Students are introduced to petrography in the laboratory, and make determinations using the petrographic microscope, in addition to hand sample identifications.

Campus
GEOL 2160

 Optical Mineralogy (3,0,3)(L)

Credits: 3
This course builds on previous knowledge by introducing the use of the petrographic microscope and the properties of light and its interaction with mineral grains for identification and other diagnostic purposes. Topics include light waves, the use of the petrographic microscope, polarization, reflection and refraction, isotropic and anisotropic minerals, interference phenomena, interference figures, birefringence, extinction, optic sign, orientation of crystallographic axes, colour and pleochroism, isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial minerals. Ore minerals and their phase relationships are studied in hand specimen and polished thin section.
Corequisite: GEOL 2100 Required Lab: GEOL 3100L

Campus
GEOL 2290

 Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Geology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
Students explore physical and biological stratigraphy, facies and correlation, sequence concepts, and basin analysis. Topics include the origin, diagenesis, and geochemistry of sediments and sedimentary rock.

Campus
GEOL 2391

 Environmental Geology

Credits: 3
Students examine geological processes and material and their interaction with human activities, environmental planning, and management.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOL 3010

 Principles of Palaeontology (2,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
This course is a systematic study of ancient forms of life (fossils). Attention is also given to palaeoecology, evolutionary principles, and palaeontologic techniques.

Campus
GEOL 3030

 Environmental Geochemistry (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
Students examine the complex relationship between environmental factors and the geochemical history of surface and subsurface rocks. This course is identical to CHEM 3030.
Note: Credit will not be given for both GEOL 3030 and CHEM 3030

Campus
GEOL 3070

 Structural Geology (2,0,3)

Credits: 3
This course offers an analysis and interpretation of natural deformation, including the fault, fold and ductile flow systems accompanying the deformation of the earth's crust; extensional, contractional and toroidal deformation; geometric, kinematic and mechanical analysis of the deformational structures of different scales; and techniques and assumptions used in the construction of structural cross sections.
Corequisite: GEOL 2290 and GEOL 3190 Required Lab: GEOL 3070L

Campus
GEOL 3190

 Geomorphology (3,0,2)(L)

Credits: 3
Students examine geomorphic processes and the interrelationship of processes, landforms, materials and time. Practical problems in science and applied science that relate to geomorphic processes are discussed in lectures, and methods of investigation and analysis are introduced in laboratory sessions.
Note: Same as GEOG 3080 Required Lab: GEOL 3190L

Campus
GEOL 3191

 Geomorphology

Credits: 3
This course examines geomorphic processes and the interrelationship of processes, landforms, materials and time. Practical problems in science and applied science that relate to geomorphic processes are discussed, and methods of investigation and analysis are introduced in laboratory sessions.
More information about this course

Distance
GEOL 3280

 Field Techniques (2,0,2*)(L)

Credits: 3
Students are introduced to techniques of geological field mapping, including methods in basic structural geology, core analysis, traversing, sampling procedures, and survival first-aid for the field. Laboratory sessions entail field exercises in traversing and mapping.

Campus
GEOL 4250

 Geological History of North America (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
Students are provided an overview of the geological history of North America with an emphasis on plate tectonics; Precambrian orogens and Phanerozoic orogenic belts, especially the Cordillera; and the interrelations of sedimentation, deformation and metamorphism.
Corequisite: GEOL 3190 and GEOL 2290

Campus
GEOL 4480

 Directed Studies in Geology

Credits: 3
Students investigate a specific topic as agreed upon by the faculty member and the student.

Campus
GERM 1110

 Introductory German 1 (3,0,1)(L)

Credits: 3
This course allows beginners to develop cultural knowledge and communicative skills in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in modern standard German. Upon successful completion of this course, students are expected to demonstrate a CEFR A1 level of proficiency.
Note: Students who have completed German in Grade 11 or equivalent within the last two years may not take this course for credit unless approved by Modern Languages. Required Lab: GERM 1110L

Campus
GERM 1210

 Introductory German 2 (3,0,1)(L)

Credits: 3
Students build on the skills acquired in GERM 1110: Introductory German 1. Upon successful completion of this course, students are expected to demonstrate a CEFR A1+ level of proficiency.
Note: Students who have completed German in Grade 11 or equivalent within the last two years may not take this course for credit unless approved by Modern Languages. Required Lab: GERM 1210L

Campus
GERM 2110

 Intermediate German 1 (3,0,1)(L)

Credits: 3
This is a video-based course for German language and culture which integrates mini-dramas and authentic historical and cultural footage. Students are provided with an in-depth view of German language, culture, and history. Upon successful completion, students are expected to demonstrate a CEFR A2 level of proficiency.

Campus
GERM 2210

 Intermediate German 2 (3,0,1)(L)

Credits: 3
This course is a continuation of GERM 2110: Intermediate German 1. Upon successful completion, students are expected to demonstrate a CEFR low B1 level of proficiency.

Campus
GERM 3120

 Studies in German Culture (3,0,0)

Credits: 3
This third-year cultural studies course explores perspectives on fascism through Post-War German cinema. Conducted in English, it views the Nazi era through the lenses of post-war German Film.

Campus
GLAZ 2000

 Glazier Apprentice Level 1


This course is based on the provincial curriculum for the Glazier Apprenticeship Program. This course introduces glass and components for glass building systems and related work. Students learn about: the safe use of tools and equipment; safe work practices for material handling; organizing their work; measuring and cutting glass; fabricating and the installation of commercial glazing systems. This course is the first level of the provincial apprenticeship program.

Campus
GLAZ 3000

 Glazier Apprentice Level 2


This course is based on the provincial curriculum for the Glazier Apprenticeship Program. The course expands on the first year curriculum related to glass installation and related work. Students learn about: interpreting drawings and specifications; performing glass cutting and edge treatment; installation of flashing; using caulking and sealants; fabrication and installation methods for storefront; window; curtain walls; skylights and commercial entrance systems; residential windows and doors; installation of showers, windows and solariums. This course is the second level of the provincial apprenticeship program.

Campus
GLAZ 4000

 Glazier Apprentice Level 3


This course is based on the provincial curriculum for the Glazier Apprenticeship Program. The course expands on the second year curriculum related to glass installation and related work. Students learn about: use of measurement and layout tools; interpreting drawings and specifications; use of codes, standards and regulations; worksite preparation; fabricating and installing storefront systems; layout, assembly and installation of specialty glass and products; and service and maintenance of glazing systems. This course is the third level of the provincial apprenticeship program.

Campus
GLBL 1000

 Global Competency (0,1,0)

Credits: 1
The course provides a means for students to learn how to document, reflect on, and communicate the global competencies - knowledge, skills, and attitudes of a globally minded citizen - acquired through their personal educational experiences.

Campus