Bob Gaglardi School of Business and Economics

Bachelor of Arts - Economics and Political Studies Major

Economics and politics is the "study of choices" and so is concerned with all areas of our lives. It provides rigorous analysis of many real world subjects: governments, taxes, unemployment, financial markets, international trade, development and economic growth, but also poverty, crime, pollution, health care, education, the environment and many other areas.

The best reason to study economics and politics is to better understand the world and help you make better choices. It can help you become a better citizen and a more rigorous thinker...not to mention its contribution to advancing your career goals.

Major requirements

The Major in Economics and Political Studies requires the completion of at least 57 credits in Economics and Political Science, of which a minimum of 30 credits must be at the upper level (3000- and 4000- level) of which no less than 6 credits must be at the 4000 level.

Students normally declare a major at the beginning of their 3rd year, but they must meet specific lower level requirements to be admitted.

 Lower level requirements
ECON 1900
Principles of Microeconomics (3,0,0)

ECON 1900 Principles of Microeconomics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the interactions between individuals and firms in various types of markets. Topics include a definition of economics; demand and supply analysis; consumer theory; production and cost; market structure including perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly; market efficiency and market failure; resource markets; and international trade.
Prerequisite: Foundations of Mathematics 11 or Pre-calculus Math 11 with a minimum B OR MATH 0510 or MATH 0530 or equivalent. Completion of one Foundations of Mathematics 12, or Pre-calculus 12 is highly recommended
Note: Students cannot receive credit for both ECON 1900 and ECON 1901
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 1950
Principles of Macroeconomics (3,0,0)

ECON 1950 Principles of Macroeconomics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine economic behaviour at the aggregate level, and the measurement and determination of national income. Topics include an introduction to economics; measuring macroeconomic variables including gross domestic product, unemployment, and inflation; the Keynesian model; aggregate demand and supply; money and banking; the money market; fiscal policy; monetary policy and the central bank; exchange rates and the balance of payments; and economic growth.
Prerequisite: Foundations of Mathematics 11 or Pre-calculus Math 11 with a minimum B or MATH 0510 or MATH 0530 or equivalent. Completion of one Foundations of Mathematics 12, or Pre-calculus 12 is highly recommended
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 2320
Economics and Business Statistics 1 (3,0,0)

ECON 2320 Economics and Business Statistics 1 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to statistics with an emphasis on its applications in business and economics. Topics include descriptive statistics and numerical measures; an introduction to probability; discrete and continuous probability distributions; sampling and sampling distributions; interval estimations; and testing hypotheses and statistical inferences.
Prerequisite: ECON 1220 or ECON 1900 and ECON 1950
Note:Students cannot receive credit for more than one of MATH 1200, STAT 1200, STAT 2000, ECON 2320, PSYC 2100, SOCI 2710, BIOL 3000, and SOCI 3710
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 2430
Global and Canadian Economic Issues (3,0,0)

ECON 2430 Global and Canadian Economic Issues (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine a variety of economic issues facing the Canadian and world economies. The topics discussed each semester vary and may include economic crisis, environmental challenges, 'big' business and multinational corporations, globalization, free trade, health care, education, poverty, and the economics of crime.
Prerequisite: ECON 1220 or both ECON 1900 and ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 2950
Intermediate Macroeconomics 1 (3,0,0)

ECON 2950 Intermediate Macroeconomics 1 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students complete an advanced, in-depth examination of economic behaviour at the aggregate level. Topics include the determination and distribution of output in the long run; the classical dichotomy and neutrality of money; the measurement, problems, and determinants of unemployment and inflation in the long run; and the role of capital accumulation, population growth, and technology in growth theory.
Prerequisite: ECON 1950 or ECON 1951
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 1110
The Government and Politics of Canada (3,0,0)

POLI 1110 The Government and Politics of Canada (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are first introduced to the main processes, structures, and institutions of the Canadian government including the Constitution, the Prime Minister and cabinet, Parliament, federalism, and the party system. Students are then introduced to key political issues in Canada including social cleavages, policy debates, differing political ideologies, and Indigenous-settler relations. Students gain an understanding of how Canadian politics and government change over time and gain the tools for engaging in ongoing learning as political issues continue to affect their personal and professional lives.
Note: Students may only receive credit for one of POLI 1110 or POLI 1111.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 1210
Introduction to Contemporary Politics (3,0,0)

POLI 1210 Introduction to Contemporary Politics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the major systems of political ideas, institutions, and structures that have shaped the modern world. Students analyze these ideologies and systems from the perspective of their historical, comparative, and philosophical antecedents, contemporary relevance, and place in the Canadian political experience. Students gain an understanding of diverse perspectives and can more informatively engage with those who bring varied viewpoints, knowledge, and tools to solving political, social, and economic issues.
For more information, search for this course here.

Two 2000-level electives

*Students may substitute any other ECON course at the 2000-level or above for either ECON 2430 or ECON 2950 but not both.

 Upper level economics and political science requirements (30 credits)
At least five courses (15 credits) from the following:
ECON 3100
Canadian Financial Markets (3,0,0)

ECON 3100 Canadian Financial Markets (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to money, banking, and the Canadian financial system. Topics include an overview of financial markets, interest rates and the structure of interest rates, the efficiency of financial markets, financial regulation, banks and other financial institutions, financial institutions risk management, the role of the central bank, the money supply, and monetary policy.
Prerequisite: ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3330
Applied Statistics for Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3330 Applied Statistics for Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students study advanced statistical techniques and methods and their applications in business and economics. Topics include inferences about population variance, including hypothesis testing and confidence intervals; analysis of variance and experimental designs; simple and multiple regressions; time series analysis and forecasting. Students are required to apply statistical techniques using Excel and/or Minitab.
Prerequisite: ECON 1220 or ECON 1900 and ECON 1950; ECON 2320; MIST 2610
Exclusion: BUEC 2330, BUEC 3101, BUEC 3330, ECON 2330, ECON 2331, STAT 2410
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3410
Economics of Climate Change (3,0,0)

ECON 3410 Economics of Climate Change (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students investigate the climatic changes resulting from global warming and the policy actions being taken to address these problems. Topics include an overview of the science and economics of climate change; the impact of climate change on growth and economic development; the economics of stabilization including efficiency, externalities, public goods, and environmental policy instruments; inter-temporal decisions and uncertainties about the impacts of climate change; the policy responses to mitigation and adaption and their cost; international collective action and its challenges; and prominent climate policy approaches, such as the United Nations Framework Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3500
Public Finance (3,0,0)

ECON 3500 Public Finance (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the rationale for government intervention in a market economy, the assessment of public policy, and the impact of government expenditures and taxation on the economy and the citizenry. Topics include government activities, externalities, public goods, social security, fiscal deficits and public debt, principles of taxation, incidence and effects of taxation, and optimal taxation.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3550
International Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3550 International Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students analyze the movement of capital, goods, and services across international boundaries and assess their financial impact. With advances in transportation and communication, greater outsourcing, and increased globalization, trade, and foreign direct investment, the corresponding capital movements are becoming much more important to the global economy. Topics include the theories of absolute and comparative advantage; modern theories of trade, including factor-proportions; tariff and non-tariff barriers; current and capital accounts; exchange rate determination; balance of payments and exchange rate policy; evolution of the international monetary system; and trade and economic development.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3600
Labour Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3600 Labour Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students analyze how individuals, families, firms, and governments operate within a contemporary labour market, and the impact of labour market institutions and government policy. Topics include an overview of the labour market; labour demand and elasticities; the effect of quasi-fixed labour costs on demand; labour supply and the decision to work; labour supply and household production; compensating wage differentials and labour markets; education and training; worker mobility; pay and productivity; gender, race, and inequality in earnings; and unions and the labour market.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3610
The Economics of Gender (3,0,0)

ECON 3610 The Economics of Gender (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students use economic theory and analysis in an attempt to explain why gender differences lead to different outcomes in education, career choices, family roles, and earnings. A comparison is made of the economic status of women relative to men throughout the world, with special emphasis on similarities and differences between Canada and other economically advanced nations. Topics include marriage and family; the economics of fertility; women at work; women's earnings, occupation, and education; the gender gap in earnings; women's employment and earnings; family policy; and women in developing countries.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3650
Government and Business (3,0,0)

ECON 3650 Government and Business (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students utilize neoclassical and institutional economic theory to examine government intervention in the economy. Topics include competition and economic efficiency; market failure; institutional theory; private sector governance structures; the role of the state; public sector governance structures, including competition policy, price and entry regulation, prevention of anti-competitive practices, and public enterprise and ownership; and government failure.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950 or POLI 1110
Note: Students may not receive credit for both ECON 3650 and POLI 3650
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3670
Economic Analysis of Law (3,0,0)

ECON 3670 Economic Analysis of Law (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students explore and analyze legal issues from an economic perspective; economists focus primarily on whether particular legal doctrines, concepts, and processes are efficient. Topics include an introduction to the law, legal institutions, and procedures, as well as economic theory relating to property law, contracts, torts, criminal law, and general legal processes.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3690
Community Economic Development (3,0,0)

ECON 3690 Community Economic Development (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students investigate methods for effectively using local community resources to enhance economic opportunities while improving social conditions in a sustainable way. Topics include the theoretical basis for community economic development (CED), analytical techniques used to assess communities, environmental sustainability objectives for community development, competing strategies of community development, financing development strategies, and CED activity in Canada and other nations.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3700
Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Economics of Project Evaluation (3,0,0)

ECON 3700 Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Economics of Project Evaluation (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine projects that are commonly evaluated using benefit-cost analysis, and the appropriate methods for determining their cost effectiveness. Topics include project evaluation techniques; measuring welfare change; correcting for market distortions using shadow wages and prices; finding the appropriate discount rate; making valid valuations that incorporate inflation and appropriate planning horizon, scrap, and spillover and secondary effects; public enterprise pricing rules; valuing intangibles; and incorporating risk and uncertainty. Case studies of projects are analyzed from a variety of areas, such as natural resources, the environment, human resources, public service, and transportation.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3710
Environmental Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3710 Environmental Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students apply the tools of microeconomic analysis to environmental issues. Topics include property rights and efficient resource use, market failure, the over-utilization of common pool resources, the Coase Theorem, non-market valuation techniques, government policies designed to cost-effectively control pollution, and real-world strategies for controlling pollution.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3730
Forestry Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3730 Forestry Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to the concepts and analytical techniques used in forestry economics and their application to forest management, conservation, and policy analysis. Topics include techniques for analyzing forestry investments; timber demand, supply, and pricing; valuation of non-marketed goods and services, such as recreation and wildlife habitat; land allocation and multiple use; forest management issues, such as planting, thinning, and optimal age of crop rotation; and regulatory issues, including allowable annual cut regulations, property rights, tenure, and taxes.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3740
Land Use Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3740 Land Use Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students focus on land use issues with particular emphasis on government policies relating to the preservation and conservation of agricultural lands. Topics include rent theory; welfare measurement; property rights and externalities; project evaluation using cost-benefit and multiple accounts analysis; the economics of soil conservation; efficiency and equity in land use planning, including zoning changes; government land preservation and conservation policies, and agricultural subsidies; water use in agriculture; forest management; and multiple uses of public lands.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3840
Economic Analysis of Health (3,0,0)

ECON 3840 Economic Analysis of Health (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students apply microeconomic tools to an analysis of the health care system, while being introduced to the major issues in health economics and the ongoing debate over health care policy. Topics include the economic determinants of health, the market for medical care, the market for health insurance, the role of the government in health care, and health care reform.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3990
***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

ECON 3990 ***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

Credits: 6 credits
Delivery: Campus

The subject matter in this course varies from semester to semester depending upon the interests of faculty and students. Courses are taught by visiting professors to instill their unique perspectives or by regular faculty to address emerging topics in a discipline, share research or teaching interests, or test potential new courses. The added variety in the curriculum greatly enhances the student learning experience.
Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4560
International Macroeconomics and Finance (3,0,0)

ECON 4560 International Macroeconomics and Finance (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students explore the determination of exchange rates in an open economy and policies that governments may adopt to influence their movement. Topics include balance of payments; foreign exchange markets; interaction of the money, interest rates and exchange rates; exchange rates in the long run, including purchasing power and interest rate parity; exchange rates in the short run; fixed exchange rates and foreign exchange intervention; history of the international monetary system; macroeconomic policy under floating exchange rates; and performance of global capital markets and policy issues.
Prerequisite: ECON 2330 or ECON 3330 or equivalent; ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4720
Sustainable Economic Development (3,0,0)

ECON 4720 Sustainable Economic Development (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine theories and issues, internal and external challenges, and alternative policy options relating to sustainable economic development. Topics include a comparative analysis of the leading theories of economic growth, development, and sustainability; lack of economic growth, poverty, and income distribution; consequences of population growth and technological change; employment and migration, human capital, agriculture, and rural development; international trade and commercial policy, foreign investment, and aid; and global integration, economic transition, and environmental degradation.
Prerequisite: ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4990
***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

ECON 4990 ***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

Credits: 6 credits
Delivery: Campus

The subject matter in this course varies from semester to semester depending upon the interests of faculty and students. Courses are taught by visiting professors to instill their unique perspectives or by regular faculty to address emerging topics in a discipline, share research or teaching interests, or test potential new courses. The added variety in the curriculum greatly enhances the student learning experience.
Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor
For more information, search for this course here.

*ECON 3990 and 4990 can be used only if the special topics covered are related to the major area as determined by an academic advisor.

At least five courses (15 credits) from the following:
POLI 3010
Canadian Political Parties (3,0,0)

POLI 3010 Canadian Political Parties (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the organization and operation of party politics and the systems of party competition in Canada. Students examine political parties in Canada with an emphasis on national-level politics.
Prerequisite: Completion of 30 credits (any discipline)
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3030
Federalism in Canada (3,0,0)

POLI 3030 Federalism in Canada (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the theory and practice of federalism, including cultural duality, social stresses, problems of flexibility, the Constitution, and the role of the courts. Prerequisites: Completion of 30 credits (any discipline).
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3050
Canadian Political Ideas (3,0,0)

POLI 3050 Canadian Political Ideas (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the political theories and ideologies in Canada, and analyze key Canadian political writers and the impact of ideas on political issues. Prerequities: Completion of 30 credits (any discipline).
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3100
Local Government and Politics in Canada (3,0,0)

POLI 3100 Local Government and Politics in Canada (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to local government in Canada and the contemporary social, economic, and ecological issues facing municipalities. Students will discuss themes that concern local government powers and responsibilities, community planning, fiscal and investment issues, and elections and community participation. By assessing the challenges and opportunities of local government, students will examine the roles that municipalities play in addressing contemporary and future issues through lenses of privilege, equality, equity, and economic and environmental sustainability. Students use their knowledge of these political systems to make informed decisions and innovate positive change at local levels.
Prerequisite: ANTH 1210 or SOCI 1110 or SOCI 1210 or POLI 1210.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3200
American Government and Politics (3,0,0)

POLI 3200 American Government and Politics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the social context of American politics, voting behaviour, legislature process, executive powers, executive-legislative relations, judicial behaviour, and problems of policy.
Prerequisite: Completion of 30 credits (any discipline).
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3420
Modern Political Theory: Analysis of a Selected Theorist (3,0,0)

POLI 3420 Modern Political Theory: Analysis of a Selected Theorist (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

This course offers a detailed examination of an acknowledged masterpiece of modern political theory. The text and attendant literature selection varies from year to year.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3440
Social and Political Thought (3,0,0)

POLI 3440 Social and Political Thought (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine major concepts in political philosophy such as justice, equality, rights, obligation, and liberty in the context of both classical and contemporary political thought. Students will identify central problems and questions in political theory; understand the arguments used by political theorists to resolve these problems; analyze and assess the consistency and plausibility of major schools of thought; and understand the nature, scope, and limits of human knowledge.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3460
Democratic Theory (3,0,0)

POLI 3460 Democratic Theory (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

This course is an examination of both classical and contemporary theories of democracy including representative democratic theory, participatory democratic theory and their relationship to 20th century concepts of democracy.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3500
The Politics of Mexico (3,0,0)

POLI 3500 The Politics of Mexico (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the contemporary political, social and economic problems that confront Mexico, with an emphasis on democratization, human rights, economic restructuring, free trade, political parties, reformist and revolutionary movements.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3520
Politics of Developing Nations (3,0,0)

POLI 3520 Politics of Developing Nations (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the problems of economic development, social change and democratization in the Developing World from a political perspective. The themes discussed in this course include colonialism, decolonization, relations between developed - developing nations, and political theories of development.
Prerequisite: POLI 1210 is recommended.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3610
Canadian Foreign Policy (3,0,0)

POLI 3610 Canadian Foreign Policy (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to the study of Canadian foreign policy and focus on competing perspectives on Canadian foreign policy, the evolution and formation of Canadian foreign policy, and Canada's role in the globe as a middle power. Students engage with major theories to investigate pressing Canadian foreign policy issues in our contemporary world. Students learn how to communicate foreign policy through an experiential learning activity designed to simulate how diplomacy and policy are achieved within the international system through a major experiential learning activity such as Model United Nations, Model NATO, or Model Arctic Council.
Prerequisite: Completion of 30 credits. POLI 2600 is recommended.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3640
Politics of the Middle East (3,0,0)

POLI 3640 Politics of the Middle East (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

This course is an introduction to the evolution and operation of Middle East political systems and issues. Students explore a number of major themes and issues that are relevant to the politics of the region specifically, and international relations in general. These issues include Islamism, colonialism, politics of oil, gender and democratization.
Prerequisite: POLI 1210 or POLI 2600 is recommended.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 3650
Government and Business (3,1,0)

POLI 3650 Government and Business (3,1,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students analyze government intervention in the face of mergers, bigness, and monopoly power, and consider possible government intervention in the face of unacceptable firm behaviour.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900 and ECON 1950 or POLI 1110 with a grade of C or better
Note: Students may only receive credit for one of POLI 3650 or ECON 3650. POLI 3650 or ECON 3650 may be used to fulfill the pre-BBA elective requirement or the BBA Environmental requirement, but not both.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 4010
Canadian Provincial and Regional Politics (3,0,0)

POLI 4010 Canadian Provincial and Regional Politics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine political parties, processes, and institutions in the provincial political systems. Students consider the regional arrangement between provinces. Prerequisites: Completion of 30 credits (any discipline)
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 4020
Politics of the Canadian Constitutions (3,0,0)

POLI 4020 Politics of the Canadian Constitutions (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the creation and amendment of the Canadian Constitutions. Students consider the political aspects of the Canadian judicial system. Students also learn about and assess the political consequences of decisions made in Canada related to the Constitutions. Prerequisites: Completion of 30 credits (any discipline)
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 4050
***Topics in Canadian Politics (3,0,0)

POLI 4050 ***Topics in Canadian Politics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

This seminar course offers an in-depth examination of the important issues in Canadian politics.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 4060
***Topics in Latin American Politics (3,0,0)

POLI 4060 ***Topics in Latin American Politics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine contemporary political, social, and economic problems that confront Latin America. Demilitarization, democratization, human rights, economic restructuring, and free trade are emphasized.
Prerequisite: Completion of 30 credits (any discipline)
For more information, search for this course here.

Upper level courses in ECON and POLI may not be offered every year. Contact an academic advisor to determine what is being scheduled in the coming semesters.


 

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