sequence edited into progressively shorter shots to create a mood of tension and
sound: Sound whose source is made by an object or person in the scene.
light: The natural light surrounding the subject.
of View: The angle intrinsic to the lens type. Wide angle lenses have a broad
angle view; Telephoto lenses have a very narrow angle view.
camera lens that squeezes a wide image to conform to the dimensions of standard
frame width. The anamorphic lens on the projector then unsqueezes the image.
Director: The designer, in charge of sets and costumes. Sometimes a major
contributor to a film, play or theatre production.
Ratio: The ratio of the height of the film or television image. In
Europe 1.66 :1 is most common; in North America 1.85: 1. Cinemascope and Panavision are even wider, 2 :1 and 2.55: 1.
which does not operate in unison with the image.
source of light is behind the subject, silhouetting it, and directed toward the
angle at which the camera is pointed at the subject: low, high, or tilt. Not to
be confused with angle of view.
of the thousands of individual drawings done on clear cellulose sheets used in
traditional animation. Many (12-24 per second) sequenced drawings of each phase
of the subject's movement are required to give the illusion of motion.
The technique of using light and shade in pictorial representation to
enhance the three dimensional effect, or the arrangement of light and dark
elements. In Italian, "clear” and "dark".
Also known as the "Director of Photography." Responsible for
the camera and lighting, and therefore, the quality of the image.
1) Precisely, a shot of the
subject's face only. 2) Generally, any close shot.
The script supervisor is in charge of
the continuity of a film production, making sure that details in one shot will
match details in another, even though the shots may be filmed weeks or months
apart. Continuity is guided by the script supervisor's detailed records of
Crane Shot: A
shot taken from a crane, a device resembling the "cherrypickers" used
by telephone linemen. D.W. Griffiths "Intolerance" contains the first
use of crane shots orchestrated by Griffiths and his cinematographer Billy
shots from two or more scenes through editing to suggest parallel action.
from the side.
In a film
or television, a switch from one image to another.
A shot inserted in a scene to show
action at another location, usually brief, and most often used to cover breaks
in the main take. See also "reaction shot."
The design of the film, the
arrangement of its shots. "Decoupage Classique" is the French term for
the old Hollywood style of seamless narration.
technique favoured by Realists, in which objects very near the camera as well as
those far away are in focus at the same time. Used effectively Orson Welles'
realist epic, "Citizen Kane."
Resolution: the power of the filmstock to define the elements of an image-a
measure of the grain from fine to coarse. Filmstock is chosen for its effects in
definition, colour temperature, etc.
of Field: The range of distances from the camera at which the subject is acceptably
shot: Usually more magnified than a Closeup. A shot of a hand, eye, mouth,
flower petal, texture etc.
The device which controls the amount
of light passing through the lens.
The superimposition of a fading in or
fading out of the image.
A system of recording sound which
greatly mutes the background noise inherent in film and tape reproduction.
A set of
wheels and a platform upon which a camera can be mounted to give it mobility.
Shot: A shot taken from a moving Dolly. Almost synonymous with a Tracking
Shot or Follow Shot.
re-record dialogue in a language other than the original. Or to record dialogue
or singing in a specially equipped studio after the film has been shot.
The cutter - the person who determines
the narrative structure of a film - in charge of the work of splicing shots of a
film together into final form.
Shot: Generally, a Long Shot that shows the audience the general location of the
scene that follows, often providing essential information and orienting the
A measure of the amount of light
striking the surface of the film. Film can be intentionally overexposed to give
a light, washed-out, dreamlike quality to the image, or it can be underexposed to
make the image darker, muddy and foreboding or gloomy.
and Fade Out: A punctuation device
which scenes are introduced or concluded
by either making the image gradually
appear to full brightness from black:
Fade In. Or, to make the image dissolve
slowly to blackness: Fade Out.
auxiliary light usually from the side of the subject or bounced from a surface
to soften shadows or illuminate areas not covered by the Key Light (main light
film as it will be released. The guarantee of final cut assures a filmmaker
that the producer will not be able to revise the film after the filmmaker has
extreme Wide Angle Lens that has an angle of view approaching 180 degrees. It
greatly distorts the image.
Cutting: Editing the film into shots of very brief duration that succeed each
The size of the opening of the
diaphragm. The higher the F-stop, the smaller the opening, the less light enters
the camera and the longer the Depth-of- Field.
In and Focus Out: Can
be used as a punctuation device where the image gradually comes into or out of
Projection: Live action is filmed against a highly reflective screen. An image from a
slide or movie projector is projected on the screen by means of mirrors along
the axis of the taking lens so that there are no visible shadows cast by the
actors. Since the screen is exceptionally reflective, and since the live actors
are well lit, no image from the projector is visible on the actors or objects in
front of the screen. This system was perfected by Douglas Trumbull for Kubrick's
"2001. A Space Odyssey". Digital editing systems are slowly replacing
this system, as seen in the more recent Forrest Gump. The sequence where Forrest shakes hands with President
Kennedy is a merger of digitized archival footage with new cut-out footage of Tom
Since the development of lightweight
portable cameras, hand-held shots have become much more common. See Direct
Key: Where the Key Light is very
bright, often producing shadows.
Shot: A detail shot that gives specific and relevant information necessary to
complete the understanding of the meaning of a scene.
Cut: A cut
that occurs within a scene rather than between scenes, to condense the shot, It
can effectively eliminate dead periods, such as between the time a character
enters a room and the time he reaches his destination on the other side of the
room. When used according to certain rules, Jump Cuts are unobtrusive. But in
"Breathless" Jean-Luc Godard deliberately inserted jump cuts in shots
where they would be quite obvious. Godard used other disruptive devices in order
to challenge the viewers' perception and conventional ways of seeing.
includes full figures or more of the scene.
lens that can focus to a very close distance from the surface of the subject.
Zoom Lens: A lens first developed by Canon Corp. that can focus from
1 mm to infinity and can zoom as well.
long take of an entire scene, generally a relatively Long Shot that facilitates
the assembly of component closer shots and details.
Medium Shot: A shot intermediate between a Closeup and a Full Shot.
En Scene: The
term usually denotes that part of the cinematic process that takes
place on the set, as opposed to Montage, which takes place afterwards during
editing. Literally, "putting in the scene".. the direction of actors,
placement of cameras, choice of lenses, etc. Mise en Scene is more important to
Realists, Montage to Expressionists.
Shot: A shot using miniature models
to represent real objects or locations.
1) Simply Editing. 2)
Eisenstein's idea that adjacent shots should relate to each other in such a way
that A and B combine to produce another meaning, C, which is not actually
recorded on the film but is implied through the juxtaposition of types of shots,
character portrayal, pacing, etc. 3) "Dynamic Cutting": a highly
stylized form of editing, often with the purpose of providing a lot of
information in a short period of time.
linear, chronological structure of a story.
shot commonly used in dialogue scenes in which the speaker is seen from the
perspective of a person standing just behind and a little to one side of the
listener, so that the parts of the head and shoulder of the listener, as well as the head of the speaker,
are in the frame.
Movement of the camera from left to
right around the imaginary vertical axis that runs through the camera. Usually
covers a range of movement which can include a 180 degree vista.
Now the most widely used
Anamorphic process, it has largely superseded other similar processes. Uses 7Omm
filmstock with a 1:1.25 squeeze ratio.
shot that cuts away from the main scene or speaker in order to show a character's
reaction to it.
unit of film narration. A series of shots or a single shot that takes place in a
single location and that deal with a single action.
camera tilts up or down, rotating around the axis that runs from the left to
right through the camera head.
Tracking Shot: Generally, any shot in which the camera moves from one point to another
either sideways, towards the subject or away from the subject.
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